2000 Census of Philippine Business and Industry (CPBI) - Economy-wide with Average Total Employment of 20 and Over : Final Results

Reference Number: 


Release Date: 

Monday, June 27, 2005

Manufacturing Sector: Highest number of establishments in 1999


Based on the 2000 Census of Philippine Business and Industry (CPBI) conducted nationwide, with 1999 as the reference period, the Philippines had a total of 28,245 establishments in 1999, which employed an average of 20 and more workers (Table 1). As shown in Figure 1, the Manufacturing Sector (Sector D) garnered the highest number of establishments 7,450 (26.4 percent). The Wholesale and Retail Trade (Sector G) ranked second with 6,842 (24.2 percent). The Mining and Quarrying, on the other hand, recorded the lowest number of establishments with only 74 (0.3 percent).

Most establishments are located in NCR

On the regional level, the National Capital Region (NCR) had the most number of establishments among the regions with 13,021 (46.1 percent). Region IV placed second with 3,883 establishments (13.7 percent) while Regions III and VII followed with 2,183 (7.7 percent) and 2,118 (7.5 percent) establishments, respectively. Autonomous Region for Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) had the least with only 39 establishments (0.1 percent). Figure 2 shows the distribution of establishments by region.

Manufacturing Sector: Top employer in 1999

Employment in 1999 reached a total of 2,853,889 employees. Out of this total, 2,823,057 (98.9 percent) were paid employees while 30,832 (1.1 percent) were working owners and unpaid employees.

Figure 3 shows that the Manufacturing (Sector D), having the highest number in terms of establishments, had the most number of employees, with 1,089,837 (38.2 percent) in 1999. The Wholesale and Retail Trade (Section G) garnered the second place with 410,353 employees (14.4 percent). Each of the rest of the sectors contributed less than 10 percent. The least number of employees were engaged in Fishing (Sector B) and Mining and Quarrying (Sector C), 21,643 (0.8 percent) and 14,571 (0.5 percent), respectively.

Region wise, NCR was the top employer among the regions with 1,370,579 employees (48.0 percent). Region IV followed with 510,651 employees (17.9 percent), while ARMM registered the least with only 4,923 employees (0.2 percent).

Average employment per establishment in the country in 1999 was recorded at 101. Mining and Quarrying (Sector C) registered the highest employment per establishment with 197, far exceeding the national average, while Hotels and Restaurants (Sector H) had the least with only 49. With respect to regions, Region IV (Southern Tagalog) was the top with 132 employees per establishment while Region II (Cagayan Valley) had the least with 56 persons per establishment.

Manufacturing (Sector D): Highest payer in 1999

The total compensation paid by the whole industry in 1999 amounted to P324 B, an equivalent of P114,733 average annual remuneration. Out of the total, P308 B (95.0 percent) comprised the salaries and wages while the remaining P16 B (5.0 percent) went to the employer�s contribution to SSS/GSIS and the like.

Industry wise, Manufacturing (Sector D) paid the highest compensation to its employees amounting to P114 B (35.3 percent). Next but far behind is the Wholesale and Retail Trade (Sector G) paying P42 B (13.0 percent) The least compensation paid to its employees was recorded by Fishing (Sector B) with P1.36 B (0.4 percent) as shown in Figure 5.

Figure 6 shows that labor payments in NCR amounted to P195.03 B (60.2 percent) of compensation nationwide. Region IV (Southern Tagalog), which expended around P51.75 B (16.0 percent), came next. Autonomous Region For Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) was the least payer with only P232 M (0.1 percent).

Financial Intermediation Sector employees: Highest earners in 1999

Financial Intermediation (Sector J) employees were the highest earners in 1999 with an average monthly compensation of P22,113. Next are the employees of Electricity, Gas and Water Sector (Sector E) with P18,088. Agriculture (Sector A) employees registered the lowest average monthly compensation of only P4,613 (Table 2).

As expected, NCR-based workers recorded the highest average monthly compensation of P11,925 while ARMM recorded the least with only P3,967 average compensation per month (Table 4).

Gross revenue reached P4.05 trillion, Manufacturing Sector: Highest revenue generator

Gross revenue earned in 1999 reached P4.05 trillion (Table 1). The Manufacturing Sector (Sector D) was the top contributor with estimated revenue value of P1.76 trillion (43.4 percent). Staying on the second place is the Wholesale and Retail Trade (Sector G) with P938.79 B sales (23.2 percent), while the Fishing (Sector B) had the least contribution to revenue with only P5.96 B (0.1 percent). See Figure 7.

With respect to regions, NCR generated the highest revenue of P2.16 trillion (53.3 percent) in 1999. Region IV placed second with P806.77 B (19.9 percent) while ARMM contributed the least revenue with P2.14 B (0.1 percent). See Figure 8.

Total Costs reached P3 trillion, Manufacturing Sector: Highest Spender

Costs for operating the industry in 1999 summed up to P3 trillion as shown in Figure 7 and Table 1. Manufacturing (Sector D) incurred the highest cost with P1.28 trillion (42.3 percent) followed by Wholesale and Retail Trade (Sector G) with almost P832 B (27.4 percent). Three sectors registered cost of less than P10 B, namely: Health and Social Works (Sector N) with P9.91 B (0.3 percent); Mining and Quarrying (Sector C) with P8.84 B (0.3 percent); and Fishing (Sector B) with P4.07 B (0.1 percent).

NCR continued to be on top as it incurred P1.64 trillion costs (54.2 percent). Region IV followed with P600.12 B (19.8 percent). The least cost was recorded in ARMM with only P811.53 M. See Figure 8.

Total change in inventories valued at P44.4 B

Change in Inventories in 1999 amounted to P44.3 B as shown in Table 1. As expected, Manufacturing (Sector D) registered the highest change in inventories with P26.60 B (60.0 percent). Three sectors were shown to have negative changes in inventories indicating larger beginning than ending inventories. These were Mining and Quarrying (Sector C) with -P206 M; Transport, Storage and Communication (Sector I) with -P665 M; and Real Estate Sector (Sector K) with -P2 B.

Regional profile showed that NCR had the highest change in inventories of P20 B (45.1 percent). Only Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) recorded a negative change in inventories with P-39 M (Table 3).

Gross addition to fixed assets totaled to P237.78 B

Gross addition to fixed assets amounted to P237.78 B with the Manufacturing (Sector D) recording the highest amount of P102.56 B (43.1 percent). Fishing sector had the lowest with only P315 M (0.1 percent).

As expected, NCR showed the highest gross addition to fixed assets of P126 B (53.0 percent). Region IV followed next with P55.53 B (23.4 percent ).

Subsidies in 1999 amounted to P8 B

Subsidies amounted to P8 B in 1999 with the government providing the highest subsidy to the Manufacturing (Sector D) of more than P2 B (25.3 percent). Electricity, Gas and Water (Sector E) received P1.99 B (24.9 percent). The Fishing (Sector B) and Hotels and Restaurants (Sector H) were not provided with government subsidy.

NCR received the highest subsidy in 1999 with P3.25 B (40.5 percent). The next highest subsidy was given to Region IV with P1.24 B (15.5 percent) and the least was given to ARMM with P183 T.

Electricity, Gas and Water Sector employees most productive in 1999

Electricity, Gas and Water (Sector E) employees were the most productive in 1999, registering a P4.3 M revenue per employment. Financial Intermediation (Sector J) followed with P3.4 M. Three other sectors recorded more than one million revenue per employment. These were: Wholesale and Retail Trade (Sector G) with P2.3 M; Manufacturing (Sector D) with P1.6 M; and Transport, Storage and Communication (Sector I) with P1.2 M. Three sectors recorded the lowest revenue per employment, namely Fishing (Sector B), Agriculture (Sector A) and Private Education (Sector M) with P275 T, P273 T and P212 M, respectively.

With respect to region, CAR recorded the highest revenue per employment of P4.9 M followed by Region VIII with P2.4 M. ARMM recorded the least revenue per employment with only P434 T. 



Scope and Coverage

The 2000 Census of Philippine Business and Industry (CPBI), formerly known as Census of Establishments (CE) with 1999 as the reference year, was conducted to collect benchmark information on economic activities in the entire country for the year 1999. Covered were the establishments engaged in economic activities as defined under the 1994 Philippine Standard Industrial Classification (PSIC). These establishments were classified into the following sectors:

Agriculture, Hunting and Forestry Sector (A)

Agriculture Establishments are farms, plantation, hacienda, ranch, or company engaged in the production of agricultural crops, livestock, poultry and other animals including animal products; firms providing agricultural, animal husbandry and horticultural services;

Forestry and Hunting Establishments are companies engaged in logging operations, forest tree nurseries operation, planting, replanting and conservation of forests; hunting, trapping and game propagation.

Fishing Sector (B)

Fishing Establishments are firm or companies engaged in ocean, coastal and inland fishing; fish farms, fishpond, fish pen; pearl farms and other fishing activities.

Mining and Quarrying Sector (C)

Mining Establishments are mining camps engaged in the exploration, extraction, dressing and beneficiating of minerals occurring naturally as solids: such as coal and ores, liquids: such as crude petroleum and gases, such as natural gas.

Quarrying Establishments are firms or companies engaged in the extraction from the earth of building and monumental stone, clay, sand and gravel; and other quarrying activities such as guano gathering, rock salt quarrying and salt evaporation.

Manufacturing Sector (D)

Manufacturing Establishments includes shop, factory, bakery, millwork, distillery, refinery, cannery, abattoir, brewery, foundry, tannery or plant engaged in manufacturing, processing, fabricating of finishing products, mechanically or manually, including the assembly of the component parts of manufactured products and the substantial alteration, reconstruction and repair of special types of goods.

Electricity, Gas and Water Sector (E)

Electricity Establishments are plant engaged in the generation, transmission and distribution of electric energy for sale to users, or one, which produces electricity for its parent enterprise.

Gas Establishments are plant engaged in the manufacture of gas, in gas works and the distribution of manufactured or natural gas through a system of mains to users.

Water Establishments include water system/waterworks engaged in the collection, purification and distribution of water to users.

Construction Sector (F)

Construction Establishment includes general contractor engaged in the construction, alteration, repair or demolition of buildings, highways, railways, airports and other structures; blasting, test drilling, landfill, land leveling; earth moving, excavating, land reclamation, land drainage and other land preparation; specialty contractor engaged in only specialized trade or craft like electrical installation, plumbing, painting, air conditioning, well drilling, installation of doors and windows and other work on component parts of the structure.

Wholesale and Retail Trade Sector (G)

Wholesale Trade and Commission Trade Establishments are store, shop, office, bazaar, arcade or emporium engaged in the (a) resale (sale without transformation) of new and used goods (in bulk) to retailers, industrial, commercial institutional or professional users, to other wholesalers and (b) trading on behalf and on the account of others such as commission agents, commodity brokers and auctioneers.

Retail Trade Establishments are store, shop, mart, bazaar, sari-sari store, pharmacy, supermarket, grocery, arcade or emporium engaged in the resale (sale without transformation) of new and used goods for personal and household consumption to the general public.

Repair Establishments are shops specializing in the repair of consumer goods like footwear, luggage, handbags and gloves and other leather goods; electrical appliances, and equipment as television and radio receivers, refrigerators, washing machines, ironers, vacuum cleaners, toasters, motor vehicles including motorcycles; watch, clock and jewelry; bicycles; typewriters, cameras, binoculars, musical instruments, umbrellas, etc.

Hotels and Restaurants Sector (H)

Food and Drinks Service Establishments are restaurant, bar, lounge, salon, parlor, kiosk, club, canteen, counter, carinderia, cafe, turo-turo or karihan engaged in the sale of prepared food and drinks generally for consumption within the premises.

Lodging and Rooming Service Establishments are hotel, motel, resort, inn, lodge, camp, dormitory or lodging house engaged in the provision of lodging facilities to the general public on lease, rental or fee basis.

Transport, Storage and Communication Sector (I)

Transport Establishments are bus line, air line, shipping line, agency, broker or transport operator engaged in providing (a) vehicles for the transport to passenger or freight through regular scheduled operation, charter, rental or fee basis, and (b) services incidental to transport such as stevedoring, maintenance and operation of piers, terminals, depots; pilotage, forwarding, packing and crating.

Storage and Warehousing Establishments are brokerage, agency or office engaged in the operation of storage facilities and warehouse for hire by the general public for storage of such items as farm products, food, furniture and other household goods, automobile dead-storage, grains, whiskey, textile and lumber;

Telecommunication Establishments are station, office or agency engaged in the transmission of sound, images, data or other information via cables, broadcasting, relay or satellite.

Financial Intermediation Sector (J)

Financial Establishments are bank, savings and loan association, credit institution, pawnshop, financial institution, trust company, investment company, pawn broker, or institution engaged in accepting of deposits, granting loans and the investment of money; dealer, broker or office engaged in investment research and counseling, check cashing, stock quotation, foreign exchange dealing and other financial services.

Insurance, Pre-Need Plan Companies and Pension Funding Establishments are life insurance companies; non-life insurance for fire, marine, accident, health, title, financial obligation, casualty, fidelity and surety; agents and brokers servicing insurance carriers; consultant for policy holders; fund managers.

Real Estate, Renting and Business Activities Sector (K)

Real Estate Establishments are realtor, developer, agency, broker, lessor or companies engaged in the letting, operating, developing, subdividing, buying, selling, managing and appraising of real estate such as residential and non-residential buildings and dwellings and memorial lots whether on personal account, on a contract or fee basis.

Business Service Establishments are office, agency or firm engaged in (a) rental and leasing of machinery and equipment, audio-video machines, tapes and records, sports and recreational equipment, (b) computer and related activities, (c) legal, accounting, bookkeeping, research and development, advertising and other technical services, (d) cleaning of offices, shops and factories, (e) photographic activities, and (f) basic and general research in the biological, physical, mathematical, environmental, medical and social sciences.

Education Sector (M)

Social Service Establishments are school, college, university or seminary offering public and private educational services.

Health and Social Work Sector (N)

Social Service Establishments also include company engaged in the collection and disposal of garbage, sewage and human waste; a clinic, hospital, sanitarium, nursing home or a similar institution offering medical, dental and other health and veterinary services; a home orphanage, society, center or agency engaged in providing social welfare services.

Other Community, Social and Personal Service Activities Sector (O)

Recreational and Cultural Service Establishments are motion picture producer, booking agency, movie house, theater, radio and television station and studio, stage and opera company, band, orchestra, ticket agency, library, museum, dance hall, bowling alley, park, beach, swimming pool, sports club, gallery, skating rink, race track or golf course engaged in providing entertainment, amusement and recreational services.

Personal Service Establishment is a laundry shop, barber shop, massage clinic, beauty parlor, funeral parlor, fortune telling shop and such engaged in rendering various specialized service to the general public


Establishment - is an economic unit under a single ownership or control, i.e., under a single entity, engaged in one or predominantly one kind economic activity at and having permanency of assets in its premises during the operation. It is also defined as the unit that is engaged in the production of the most homogenous group of goods and services, usually at one location, but sometimes over a wider area, for which separate records are available that can provide data concerning the production of these goods and services and the materials, labor and physical resources used in this production.

Economic activity - or business is the activity of the establishment as classified under the 1994 Philippine Standard Industry Classification (PSIC). Generally, the main activity is the establishment's principal source of income. If the establishment is engaged in several activities, its main activity is that which earns the biggest income or revenue.

Average Total Employment (ATE) - is the sum of the number of persons who worked in or for the establishment for all months of the year divided by 12, regardless of the number of months the establishment was in operation in 1999.

Paid employees - are all persons working in the establishment and receiving pay, as well as those who are working away from the establishment paid by and under the control of the establishment. Included are all employees working as full-time and part-time, employees on sick or maternity leave and on paid vacation or holiday, and employees on strike. Excluded are consultants, home workers, workers receiving pure commissions only and workers on indefinite leave.

Working owners - are owners who are actively engaged in the management but do not receive regular pay, i.e., not included in the payrolls. Managers and directors of corporations working for pay are reported as managers.

Unpaid workers - are working owners who do not receive regular pay, apprentices and learners without regular pay, and persons working for at least 1/3 of the working time normal to the establishment without regular pay.

Salaries and wages - are payments in cash or in kind to all employees, prior to deduction for employee's contribution to SSS/GSIS, withholding tax, etc. Included are total basic pay, vacation, sick, maternity leave pay, overtime pay and other benefits.

Employer's Contribution to SSS/GSIS and the like - refers to payments made by the establishment on behalf of the employees. Examples are SSS, GSIS, Employees Compensation Commission (ECC), Philhealth and PAGIBIG.

Revenue - is the value of goods, products/by-products sold and/or services rendered to others whether paid in cash or is considered receivable by the establishment. Valuation of products/by products sold should be in producer's price (ex-establishment), net of discounts and allowances, including duties and charges but excluding subsidies. It also include goods transferred and/or services rendered to other establishment belonging to the same enterprise as the said establishment which should be treated as sales or as if sold to a customer; and revenue from products on a contractual basis from materials supplied by the establishment.

Costs - refer to all expenses including compensation incurred during the year whether paid or payable. Valuation should be at market price including taxes and other charges, net of discounts, rebates, returns and allowances. Goods received from and services rendered by other establishment of the same enterprise are valued as though purchased.

Gross addition to fixed assets - is the sum of costs of new and used fixed assets acquired during the year, cost of alteration and improvements done by others and cost of fixed assets produced by the establishment less the value of sales of fixed assets during the year.

Fixed assets - are physical assets expected to have productive life of more than one year and intended for use and/or being used by the establishment. Included are land, buildings, other structures and land improvements, transport equipment, fixtures, machinery, tool, furniture, office equipment and other fixed assets.

Inventories - refer to the stocks of goods owned by and under the control of the establishment as of a fixed date, regardless of where the stocks are located. Valuation should be at current replacement cost in purchaser's price at the indicated dates. Replacement cost is the cost of an item in terms of its present price rather than its original price.

Change in inventories - is equivalent to the total value of inventories at the end of the year less the value at the beginning of the year.

Subsidies - are special grants in the form of financial assistance or tax exemption or tax privilege given by the government to aid and develop an industry or production and to protect it against competition.


Source:   National Statistics Office 
                Manila, Philippines