2012 Census of Philippine Business and Industry - Professional, Scientific and Technical Activities for All Establishments : Final Results

Reference Number: 


Release Date: 

Thursday, October 23, 2014


Photographic activities industry leads the sector

Final results of the 2012 Census of Philippine Business and Industry showed that a total of 6,867establishments were engaged in Professional, Scientific and Technical Activities.  Majority (89.5%) or 6,145 establishments had total employment (TE) of less than 20.  The remaining 10.5 percent or 722 establishments were with TE of 20 and over.

Photographic activities industry had the highest number of establishment with 1,567 establishments or 22.8 percent.  Legal activities closely followed with 1,328 establishments at about 19.3 percent.  Management consultancy activities ranked third with 897 establishments or 13.1 percent (Table 1).


Architectural and engineering activities and related technical consultancy industry employs the highest number of workers

Employment in 2012 reached a total of 107,270 workers.  Almost all workers (97.9%) were paid employees and the rest were working owners or unpaid workers.  About two thirds of the total employees worked for establishment with TE of 20 and over and the remaining worked in establishments with TE less than 20.

Architectural and engineering activities and related technical consultancy employed almost one-fourth of the total workers at 23.4 percent equivalent to 25,144 employees.  Management consultancy activitiesfollowed with 14,841 employees (13.8%).  Advertising placed third with 14,255 employees or 13.3 percent.  The least number of employees (67) worked for research and experimental development services n.e.c.(Figure 2).


Labor payments reach to PHP42.3 billion

The section paid a total compensation of PHP42.3 billion in 2012, equivalent to an average annual compensation of PHP403.1 thousand per paid employee.  For establishments with 20 and over, the total compensation reached PHP35.4 billion amounting to an average annual compensation of PHP494.5 thousand per paid employee.  On the other hand, establishments with TE less than 20 paid only PHP7.0 billion or PHP207.7 thousand per paid employee.

Among the industries, architectural and engineering activities and related technical consultancy paid the highest compensation of PHP10.7 billion comprising one fourth (25.4%) of the total.  Management consultancy activities followed next with PHP10.2 billion or 24.0 percent.   Advertising ranked third with PHP4.9 billion or 11.5 percent.  On the other hand, research and experimental development services, n.e.c. recorded the lowest labor payment of PHP14.3 million (0.03%).


Management consultancy workers are the highest-paid employees in 2012

Workers in management consultancy activities establishments were the highest-paid employees in the section receiving an average annual compensation of PHP685.9 thousand, surpassing the sector’s average of PHP403.1 thousand per annum.   Employees of activities of head offices followed next with PHP606.2 thousand.  On the other hand, those employed in photographic activities were paid only PHP106.8 thousand per annum (Figure3).


Activities of head offices contribute the biggest share in income and expense

Gross income generated by the sector reached PHP170.0 billion in 2012.  Eighty percent of the gross income was contributed by establishments with TE of 20 and over.  Activities of head offices had the biggest share with PHP55.0 billion or 32.3 percent of the total.  Architectural and engineering activities and related technical consultancy ranked second with PHP28.3 billion (13.6%).  Management consultancy with PHP23.2 billion and advertising with PHP 23.1 billion comprised 13.6 percent each of the total income.

Total expenses incurred amounted to PHP134.4 billion in 2012.  Being the major contributor in income, activities of head offices had the largest proportion in expense with PHP34.5 billion (25.7%).   This was followed by architectural and engineering activities and related technical consultancy and management consultancy activities with PHP25.8 billion (19.2%) and PHP21.7 billion (16.1%), respectively.   On the other hand, research and experimental development services, n.e.c incurred the lowest cost of PHP40.1 million (0.03%).   Figure 4 shows the top four industry groups in income and expense.


Income per peso expense at 1.27 in 2012

In 2012, the income per peso expense for the section stood at 1.27.  Among industries, activities of head offices recorded the highest and surpassed the national average with 1.59 income per peso expense.  This was followed by industry engaged in specialized design activities with 1.42.   Legal activities placed third with 1.40 income per peso expense.


Value added amounts to PHP102.7 billion

Value added for the Professional, Scientific and Technical Activities section was estimated at PHP102.7 billion in 2012.  For establishments with TE of 20 and over, value added was PHP91.6 billion and PHP11.1 billion value added for establishments with TE less than 20.

The top three industries that contributed to the total value added were activities of head offices with PHP43.3 billion (42.2%), architectural and engineering activities and related technical consultancy with PHP14.6 billion (14.2%) and management consultancy activities with 13.0 billion (12.7%).  On the other hand,research and experimental development services n.e.c. recorded the least with PHP10.3 million (0.01%).


Activities of head offices companies has the highest labor productivity

Value added per worker, ameasure of labor productivity, was estimated at PHP957.5 thousand.  Workers engaged in Activities of head offices led the sector with PHP5.9 million value added per worker while research and experimental development services n.e.c. had the lowest value added per worker with PHP154.1 thousand (Figure 5).


Gross additions to fixed assets reaches PHP3.2 billion

Gross additions to fixed assets (capital expenditures less sale of fixed assets) acquired by the sector reached PHP3.2 billion in 2012.  Establishment with TE of 20 and over recorded PHP2.3 billion while establishments with TE less than 20 reached PHP830.1 million.

Architectural and engineering activities and related technical consultancy acquired the biggest gross addition to fixed assets worthPHP707.9 million.  This was followed by advertising and management consultancy activities with PHP560.8 million and PHP444.4 million respectively.  On the other hand, research and experimental development services n.e.c. had the least with PHP117.0 thousand.


Total change in inventories amounts to PHP1.6billion

Total change in inventories (ending less beginning inventory) amounted to PHP1.6 billion in 2012.  Change in inventories for establishments with TE 20 and over reached PHP1.5 billion and PHP90.4 million for establishments with TE less than 20.

Activities of head offices had the highest change in inventory with PHP1.4 billion or 89.2 percent of the total.  Photographic activities followed with PHP277.1 million.  On the other hand, four industries namely:  market research and public opinion polling, technical testing and analysis, accounting, bookkeeping and auditing activities; tax consultancy and advertising had negative change in inventory amounting to PHP255.3 million.


Total subsidies received from the government amounts to PHP16.9 billion

Total subsidies received from the government amounted to PHP16.9 billion in 2012.  Only establishment with TE 20 and over received subsidies from the government.

Only three industry groups received subsidies from the government:  Activities of head offices, architectural and engineering activities and related technical consultancy; and research and experimental development on natural sciences and engineering with PHP16.5 billion, PHP203.4 million and PHP179.4 million, respectively.




This Special Release presents the final results of the 2012 Census of Philippine Business and Industry (CPBI) for the Professional, Scientific and Technical Activities sector for establishments with total employment of 20 and over.

The 2012 CPBI is the forerunner of the 2006 CPBI and one of the designated statistical activities of the former National Statistics Office (NSO) now Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA). Data collected from the census will provide information on the levels, structure, performance and trends of economic activities of the formal sector of the economy for the reference period 2012.  It will also serve as benchmark information in the measurement and comparison of national and regional economic growth.

To provide establishment respondents ease in accomplishing the 2012 CPBI questionnaires, the income and expense account in the Financial Statement of establishment was adopted in the design of 2012 CPBI sectoralquestionnaires. Income and revenue have the same concept in recording financial transaction of establishments while expense is cost incurred on a consumed basis.

Data collection was intensified through the use of web-based or online accomplishment of questionnaire through the NSO website and downloading of e-questionnaire and submission thru e-mail.


Legal Authority

The conduct of the CPBI is governed by authority of the following legislative acts and presidential directives:

  • Commonwealth Act No. 591 An Act to Create the Bureau of the Census and Statistics to consolidate statistical activities of the government therein which was approved on August 19, 1940. This empowers the Bureau, among other things, to prepare for and undertake all censuses of population, agriculture, industry and commerce.

  • Presidential Decree No. 418 dated March 20, 1974 reconstituted the Bureau of the Census and Statistics as a new agency to be known as the National Census and Statistics Office (NCSO), under the administrative supervision of the National Economic Development Authority (NEDA).

  • Executive Order No. 121 Reorganization Act of the Philippine Statistical System, dated August 4, 1987 renamed the National Census and Statistics Office (NCSO) to National Statistics Office which shall be the major statistical agency responsible for generating general purpose statistics and undertaking such censuses and surveys.

  • Executive Order 352 Designation of Statistical Activities that will generate critical data for decision-making by the Government and the Private Sector, dated July 1, 1996.

  • Executive Order 5 Strengthening the National Statistics Office, dated July 29, 1998.


Scope and coverage

The 2012 CPBI was a nationwide undertaking confined to the formal sector of the economy and as such excluded the informal sector. The following comprise the formal sector:

1. Corporations and partnerships

2. Cooperatives and foundations

3. Single establishment with employment of 10 or more

4. Single proprietorship with branches

The scope of the ASPBI was confined to “formal sector” only, which consists of the following:.

  • All establishments with total employment (TE) of 10 or more, and; 

  • All establishments with TE of less than 10, except those establishments with Legal Organization = 1 (single proprietorship) and Economic Organization = 1 (single establishment), that are engaged in economic activities classified according to the 2009 Philippine Standard Industrial Classificatin (PSIC). 

The initial count of the 2012 List of Establishments (LE), the frame used to draw the sample establishments for the 2012 CPBI, registered a total of 945,000 establishments in operation nationwide in 2012.  Out of this number, 72 percent or 680,400 establishments belong to the informal sector and only 28 percent or 262,800 establishments made up of the formal sector.

Listed below are the 18 economic sectors within the scope of the 2012 CPBI classified under the 2009 Philippine Standard Industrial Classification (PSIC).

  • Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (A) 

  • Mining and Quarrying (B) 

  • Manufacturing (C)

  • Electricity, Gas, Steam and Air Conditioning Supply (D)

  • Water Supply; Sewerage, Waste Management and Remediation Activities (E) 

  • Construction (F)

  • Wholesale and Retail Trade; Repair of Motor Vehicles and Motorcycles (G)

  • Transport and Storage (H)

  • Accommodation and Food Service Activities (I) 

  • Information and Communication (J)

  • Financial and Insurance Activities (K)

  • Real Estate Activities (L)

  • Professional, Scientific and Technical Activities (M) 

  • Administrative and Support Service Activities (N)

  • Private Education (P)

  • Human Health and Social Work Activities (Q) 

  • Arts Entertainment, and Recreation (R)

  • Other Service Activities (S)


Unit of Enumeration

The unit of enumeration for the 2012 CPBI was the establishment. An establishment is defined as an economic unit, which engages, under a single ownership or control, in one or predominantly one kind of activity at a single fixed physical location.


Classification of Establishments

An establishment is categorized by its economic organization (EO), legal organization (LO), industrial classification, employment size, and geographic location.

Economic organization (EO).   This refers to the organizational structure or role of the establishment in the organization. The following are the types of economic organization:

  • Single establishment (EO=1) is an establishment which has neither branch nor main office.  It may have ancillary unit/s, other than main office, located elsewhere. 

  • Branch (EO=2) is an establishment which has a separate main office located elsewhere.

  • Establishment and main office (EO=3) is one where the establishments is located in the same address as the main office and with branch/es elsewhere.

  • Main Office (EO=4) is a unit which controls, supervises and directs one or more establishments of an enterprise.

  • Ancillary unit other than Main Office (EO=5) is a unit that operates primarily or exclusively for a related establishment or group of related establishments or its parent establishment and provides services that support those establishments.

Legal organization (LO) This refers to the legal form of the economic entity provides the legal basis for ownership of the establishment. The following are the types of legal organization:

  • Single Proprietorship (LO=1) refers to a business establishment organized, owned, and managed by one person, who alone assumes the risk of the business enterprise.  A sole propietorship must apply for a business name and be registered with the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI). 

  • Partnership (LO=2) refers to an association of two or more individuals for the conduct of a business enterprise based upon an agreement or contract between or among them to contribute money, property or industry into a common fund with the intention of dividing profits among themselves. 

  • Government Corporation (LO=3) also called Government-Owned or Controlled Corporation (GOCC) refers to a corporation organized for private aim, benefit or purpose with the government as the major stockholder, regardless of whatever they are stock or non-stock corporations. 

  • Stock Corporation (LO=4) refers to an ordinary business corporation organized by private persons, created and operated for the purpose of making a profit which may be distributed in the form of dividends to stockholders on the basis of their invested capital.

  • Non Stock, Non-profit Corporation (LO=5) refers to a business corporation which does not issue stock to its members and are created not to profit but for the public good and welfare. Of this character are most of the religious, social, charitable, educational, literary scientific, civic and political organizations and societies.

  • Cooperative (LO=6) refers to an organization composed primarily of small producers and/or consumers who voluntarily join together to form a business enterprise which they themselves own, control and patronize.

  • Others (LO=7) refer to an organization not classified in any of the above classification. It includes private associations, foundations, Non-Governmental Organizations, or other forms of legal organizations.

Industrial Classification.  The Industrial Classification of an economic unit is determined by the activity from which it derives its major income or revenue. The 2009 PSIC which was approved for adoption by government agencies and instrumentalities through NSCB Resolution No. 2 Series 2010 was utilized to classify economic units according to their economic activities.

Size (SZ) of the Unit of Enumeration.  The size of an economic unit is determined by its total employment (TE) as of specific date. Total employment (TE) refers to the total number of persons who work in or for the establishment/enterprise. This includes paid employees, working owners, unpaid workers and all employees who work full-time or part-time including seasonal workers. Included also are persons on short term leave such as those on sick, vacation or annual leaves and on strike.

The following are the size codes and corresponding total employment used in the 2012CPBI: 

TE Code Total Employment TE Code Total Employment
0 1 - 4 5 100 - 199
1 5 - 9 6 200 - 499
2 10 - 19 7 500 - 999
3 20 - 49 8 1000 - 1999
4 50 - 99 9 2000 & Over

Geographic Classification.  Establishments are also classified by geographic area using the Philippine Standard Geographic Code (PSGC) classification. The PSGC contains the latest updates on the official number of regions, provinces, cities, municipalities, and barangays in the Philippines. The latest PSGC as of September 30, 2012 was used for the 2012 CPBI.


Sampling Design

Selection of sample establishment for the 2012 CPBI was done using stratified systematic sampling with 3-digit or 5-digit PSIC serving as industry strata and employment size as the second stratification variable.


Response Rate

Field operations of the 2012 CPBI were scheduled from April to July 2013. As of July 2013, only 61.2 percent of the total sample questionnaires were received at the Central Office. About 90.2 percent collection of questionnaires was achieved only on November 2013.

Total response rate for Professional, Scientific and Technical Activities sector was 95.2 percent (1,768 out of 1,858 establishments).  This included receipts of "good" questionnaires, partially accomplished questionnaires, reports of closed, moved out or out of scope establishments.

Of the total responses, 26 establishments responded online and none accomplished e-questionnaire.  Others convert accomplished questionaires to portable document format (PDF) and submit through e-mail.  

For establishments with TE 20 and over, the response rate was 96.6 percent.




Economic activity is the establishment’s source of income. If the establishment is engaged in several activities, its main economic activity is that which earns the biggest income or revenue.

Total employment is the number of persons who worked in for the establishment as of November 15, 2012.

Paid employees are all persons working in the establishment and receiving pay, as well as those working away from the establishment paid by and under the control of the establishment. Included are all employees on sick leave, paid vacation or holiday. Excluded are consultants, home workers, receiving pure commissions only, and workers on indefinite leave.

Compensation includes salaries and wages, separation/retirement/terminal pay, gratuities, and payments made by the employer in behalf of the employees such as contribution to SSS/GSIS, ECC, PhilHealth, Pag-ibig, etc.

Salaries and wages are payments in cash or in kind to all employees, prior to deductions for employee’s contributions to SSS/GSIS, withholding tax, etc. Included are total basic pay, overtime pay, and other benefits.

Income or Revenue refers to cash received and receivables for goods/products and by-products sold and services rendered.

Cost refers to all expenses incurred during the year whether paid or payable. Valuation is at purchaser prices including taxes and other charges, net of rebates, returns and allowances. Goods and services received by the establishment from other establishments of the same enterprise are valued as though purchased.

Expenses refers to cost incurred by the establishment during the year whether paid or payable. This is treated on a consumed basis.


Value added is gross output less intermediate input. Gross output for information and communication is the sum of the total revenue (less interest income, rent income from land, dividend income, royalty income and franchise income), capital expenditures of fixed assets produced on own account and change in inventories. Intermediate input is equal to the sum of the following cost items: materials and supplies purchased; fuels, lubricants, oils and greases purchased; electricity purchased;water purchased; cost of industrial services done by others; cost of non-industrial services done by others; goods purchased for resale; research and development expense; environmental protection expense; royalty fee; franchise fee and other cost.

Change in inventories is equivalent to the value of inventories at the end of the year less the value of inventories at the beginning of the year.

Inventories refer to the stock of goods owned by and under the control of the establishment as of a fixed date, regardless of where the stocks are located. Valuation is at current replacement cost in purchaser prices. Replacement cost is the cost of an item in terms of its present price rather than its original cost.

Subsidies are all special grants in the form of financial assistance or tax exemption or tax privilege given by the government to aid and develop an industry.


Source:   Philippine Statistics Authority - National Statistics Office
              Manila, Philippines