Six in ten of the population 15 years old and over are in the labor force
Of the estimated 71.9 million population 15 years old and over in October 2018, approximately 43.5 million persons were in the labor force, that is, either employed or unemployed (Table 1 and Table 3). This translates to a labor force participation rate (LFPR) of 60.6 percent. Region X (Northern Mindanao) had the highest reported LFPR with 65.2 percent while the lowest LFPR reported was in Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) at 49.5 percent (Table 1 and Figure 1).
Employment rate registers at 94.9 percent
The total number of employed persons in October 2018 was estimated at 41.3 million (Table 2). The employment rate reported or the proportion of employed persons to total labor force was 94.9 percent (Table 1).
Region II (Cagayan Valley) had the highest employment rate with 97.2 percent. Five of the 17 regions, namely: Region I (Ilocos Region) (93.3%), Region IV-A (CALABARZON) (93.4%), Region III (Central Luzon) and National Capital Region (94.0%), and Region VI (Western Visayas) (94.7%) registered an employment rate lower than the national figure of 94.9 percent (Table 1 and Figure 2).
More males are employed than females
More than sixty percent (61.8%) of the estimated 41.3 million employed persons in October 2018 were males. The largest number of the employed persons were in age group 25 to 34 years with 27.4 percent of the total employed. The 35 to 44 age group comprised the second largest group (23.2%), while the 45 to 54 age group made up the third largest group (18.6%). Employed females were reported at 38.2 percent of total employed persons (Table 3 and Figure 3).
More than half of employed persons are in the services sector
Although employment in the services sector went down in October 2018, it remained the highest group at 56.8 percent of the total employed, from 57.0 percent in October 2017.
In the industry sector, the share of both construction and manufacturing sub-sectors showed an increase from 8.5 percent in October 2017 to 9.5 percent in October 2018 and 8.7 percent in October 2017 to 8.9 percent in October 2018, respectively (Table 4 and Figure 4). Employed persons in the agriculture sector decreased from 25.0 percent of the total employed in October 2017 to 24.1 percent in October 2018.
Among workers in the services sector, those engaged in wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles made up the largest percentage with 19.3 percent of the 41.3 million employed persons (Table 4).
More than one-fourth of employed persons are in elementary occupations
Across occupation groups, workers in elementary occupations made up the largest percentage of 26.6 percent of the 41.3 million total employed population. Workers in managerial position composed the second largest group of workers with 16.0 percent. Service and sales workers were reported at 15.4 percent while the skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers were accounted at 12.1 percent (Table 5 and Figure 5).
Majority of employed persons are wage and salary workers
Employed persons were categorized as wage and salary workers, self-employed without any paid employee, employer in own family-operated farm or business and unpaid family workers.
Wage and salary workers are those who work for private households, private establishments, government and government-controlled corporations and those who work with pay in own family-operated farm or business. In October 2018, wage and salary workers were registered at 64.4 percent. Those who worked in private establishments made up 50.4 percent and those working in government and government-controlled corporations were accounted at 9.1 percent (Table 6).
Classified according to broad industry group, 59.2 percent of unpaid family workers were in the agriculture sector. In contrast, sixty percent (60.3%) of wage and salary workers were in the services sector. More than half (57.0%) of those who were employer in own-family operated farm or business were in agriculture. Also, more than fifty percent (55.4%) of self employed without any paid employee were in the services sector (Table 7 and Figure 6).
More than seventy percent of employed persons work full time
Employed workers are classified as either full-time or part-time workers. Full-time workers are those who work for 40 hours or more while part-time workers work for less than 40 hours. Full-time workers comprised 70.8 percent of the total employed persons in October 2018. Those who worked for 40 to 48 hours made up a larger proportion of 48.8 percent, while those who worked more than 48 hours comprised 22.0 percent. Part-time workers comprised 28.6 percent of the total employed (Table 8).
Underemployment rate registers at 13.3 percent
Underemployed persons were estimated at 5.5 million in October 2018. This number represented 13.3 percent of the total employed persons (Table 1). Underemployed persons are employed persons who express the desire to have additional hours of work in their present job or to have additional job, or have a new job with longer working hours.
Among the broad industry group, underemployed persons were highest in the services sector at 43.2 percent, 37.9 percent in the agriculture sector and 18.8 percent in the industry sector (Figure 7).
Visibly underemployed, or those persons who worked for less than 40 hours a week accounted for 57.0 percent, a large percentage (76.7%) of which were in the agriculture sector (Table 9).
Unemployment rate reaches 5.1 percent
Of the total 43.5 million country's labor force population, 2.2 million were unemployed. This resulted to the country's unemployment rate of 5.1 percent (Tables 1 and 2).
Ilocos Region and CALABARZON had the highest unemployment rates with 6.7 percent and 6.6 percent respectively. National Capital Region (6.0%), Central Luzon (6.0%), and Western Visayas (5.3%) had unemployment rates higher than the national figure of 5.1 percent (Table 1 and Figure 8).
More males (63.6%) were unemployed than females (36.4%). Most of the unemployed persons were in younger age groups, that is 15 to 24 years (44.6%) and 25 to 34 years (30.3%) (Table 3).
Across educational groups, 40.0 percent of unemployed persons reached college level wherein 24.0 percent were graduates, 38.3 percent were at least junior high school, including high school graduates from the old curriculum. Six percent of unemployed persons were elementary graduates, and 5.1 percent were graduates of post secondary courses (Table 10).
Sixty-eight percent of persons not in the labor force are women
Of the 71.9 million population 15 years old and over in October 2018, 28.4 million or 39.4 percent were not in the labor force. These include full-time housewives, students, persons with disability, and those who have retired from their employment. About sixty-eight percent (67.6%) of persons not in the labor force were women.
By age group, 43.9 percent of persons not in the labor force were in age group 15 to 24 years, 14.5 percent in age group 25 to 34 years and 14.0 percent were in age group 65 and over (Table 3 and Figure 9).
The labor force population in October 2018 was estimated at 43.5 million. This translates to a labor force participation rate (LFPR) of 60.6 percent.
Total employed persons were approximately 41.3 million, resulting to a national employment rate of 94.9 percent.
More than half (56.8%) of the total employed were in the services sector, 24.1 percent were in the agriculture sector, and 19.1 percent were in the industry sector.
Workers in elementary occupations had the largest share of employed persons as they comprised 26.6 percent of the total employed population.
Total unemployed persons was 2.2 million which placed the country's unemployment rate to 5.1 percent.
Underemployment rate was estimated at 13.3 percent.
(Sgd.)JOSIE B. PEREZ
The Labor Force Survey (LFS) is a nationwide quarterly survey conducted by the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) during the months of January, April, July, and October. For this release, the data being presented are based on the final results of the October 2018 round of the LFS.
The reference period used in the survey is the past seven (7) days preceding the date of interview of the enumerator.
The concepts and definitions used in the survey can be found in PSA Integrated Survey of Households (ISH) Bulletins. Some are given below:
a. Labor Force – refers to the population 15 years old and over who contribute to the production of goods and services in the country. It comprises the employed and unemployed.
b. Employed – refers to persons in the labor force who are reported either as at work or with a job or business although not at work. Persons at work are those who did some work, even for an hour during the reference period.
c. Unemployed – refers to persons in the labor force who are reported as:
1. without work; and
2. currently available for work; and
3. looking for work or not looking for work due to the following reasons:
i. belief that no work is available, or
ii. awaiting results of previous job application, or
iii. because of temporary illness or disability, or
iv. bad weather, or
v. waiting for rehire or job recall.
d. Underemployed – refers to employed persons who express the desire to have additional hours of work in their present job or an additional job, or a new job with longer working hours.
e. Labor Force Participation Rate (LFPR) – refers to the proportion of total labor force to the total household population 15 years old and over.
f. Employment Rate – refers to the proportion of employed persons to the total labor force.
g. Unemployment Rate – refers to the proportion of unemployed persons to the total labor force.
h. Underemployment Rate – refers to the proportion of underemployed persons to total employed persons.