One in every five families is female-headed
Of the estimated 18.5 million families in 2009, one in every five was female-headed, according to the 2009 Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES). This is because Filipinos, in general, regard the male as head of the family (Table 1).
Female-headed families have higher average annual income
On the average, female-headed families had an income of about 230 thousand pesos every year which is higher than the income of maleheaded families which was 200 thousand pesos, on the average (Table 1). However, female-headed families in the bottom 30 percent income group had smaller income than male-headed families in this income group, with an average annual income of 56 thousand pesos, compared to 63 thousand pesos for male-headed families in the same income group. Female-headed families in the upper 70
percent income group, on the other hand, had a higher income than the male-headed families in this income group, earning an average annual income of 300 thousand pesos (Figure 1 and Table 1).
Female-headed families derive income mainly from sources other than wage and salary
In 2009, almost half (49%) of female-headed families derived their income from sources other than wages and salaries and entrepreneurial activities, mainly from cash receipts from abroad (Table 2). This source of income was especially very important for families in the upper 70 percent income group headed by females who had no job or business. Of the total number of such families, 38 percent derived their income from cash receipts and support from abroad (Table 3).
More than one-third (35%) of female-headed families derived their income from wages and salaries, while 16 ercent, from entrepreneurial activities. Entrepreneurial activity or a family-operated activity is any economic activity, business or enterprise whether in agriculture or non-agricultural enterprises, engaged in by any member of the family as an operator or as self- employed (Figure 2 and Table 2).
Female heads of families are highly educated than male heads
Female heads particularly those who were heads of families in the upper 70 percent income group were more highly educated than their male counterpart. Of all female heads, 17 percent were college graduates. A higher proportion of college graduates (23%) were reported for female heads of families in the upper 70 percent income group. Those with some years in college made up 15 percent. On the other hand, 14 percent of male heads of families in the upper 70 percent income group were college graduates, while 15 percent were college undergraduates. In contrast, female heads of families in the bottom 30 percent income group had lower educational attainment than their male counterpart, although a slightly higher proportion of them were college graduates compared to male heads (2% for females compared to 1% for males) (Table 4).
Six in ten of female heads had a job or business
Of the total female heads of families, 59 percent had a job or business. Among female heads of families in the bottom 30 percent income group, the proportion is higher, that is, 63 percent had a job or business, while among female heads in the upper 70 percent income group, 58 percent had a job (Figure 4). In comparison, as to be expected, a much larger percentage of male family heads, for both bottom 30 percent and upper 70 percent income groups, had a job or business (91% and 87%, respectively) (Table 5).
More than one third or 35 percent of the female heads in the lower 30 percent income group were laborer and unskilled workers like market vendors and domestic helpers, 28 percent were working in agriculture, and 19 percent were managing proprietors (Table 6).
On the other hand, half of the male heads in the same income group were farmers, forestry workers and fishermen, and 28 percent were laborers and unskilled workers. Among female heads of families in the upper 70 percent income group, 39 percent were managers, supervisors, managing proprietors and officials of the government, and 10 percent were professionals. The corresponding proportions for their male counterpart were 19 percent and 3 percent, respectively (Table 6).
Female-headed families spend less on food
The female-headed families spent 194 thousand pesos annually, on the average, which was higher than the average annual expenditure of the male-headed families (171 thousand pesos) Femaleheaded families in the bottom 30 percent group reported an average annual expenditure of 57 thousand pesos annually. In comparison, female-headed families in the upper 70 % income group spent 250 thousand pesos a year (Table 1).
The spending pattern of female-headed families showed lesser spending on food (39%) than maleheaded families (44%). Housing expenditure of female-headed families accounted for the second largest part of the family budget with 14.8 percent, followed by transportation and communications (8%) and fuel, light and water (7%) (Figure 5 and Table 7).
The 2009 Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES) is a nationwide survey of households undertaken every three years by the National Statistics Office (NSO). It is the main source of data on family income and expenditure, which include among others, levels of consumption by item of expenditure as well as sources of income in cash and in kind. The results of FIES provide information on the levels of living and disparities in income of Filipino families, as well as their spending patterns.
The 2009 FIES is a sample survey designed to provide income and expenditure data that are representative of the country and its 17 regions. It used four replicates of the 2003 Master Sample (MS) created for household surveys on the basis of the 2000 Census of Population and Housing. The 2003 MS has been designed to produce the sample size needed for large surveys, like the FIES. To facilitate subsampling, the 2003 MS has been designed to readily produce four replicate samples from the full set of sampled PSUs.
The 2009 FIES enumeration was conducted twice – the first visit was done in July 2009 with the first semester January to June as the reference period; the second visit was made in January 2010 with the second semester of 2009, that is, July to December 2009 as reference period. The same set of questions is asked for both visits.
The number of households/families for the 2009 FIES was estimated using the 2000 Census of Population and Housing (CPH)-based population projections and information from the 2000 CPH on the average household size by province.
The set of samples selected for the 2009 FIES is only one of the possible sets of samples of equal size that have been selected from the same population using the same sampling design. Estimates derived from each of these sets of samples would differ from one another. Sampling error is a measure of the variability of the estimates among all possible sets of samples. It is usually measures in terms of the standard errors for a particular statistic.