Approximately 7.0 million of the 38.5 employed population in the country are considered underemployed, based on the October 2013 Labor Force Survey (LFS). The underemployment rate in October 2013 was consequently estimated at 18.1 percent. Of the total number of underemployed persons, 2.1 million or 30.4 percent were women while 4.8 million or 69.6 percent were men (Table 1). Underemployed persons refer to employed persons who express the desire to have additional hours of work in their present job or to have additional job, or to have a new job with longer working hours.
One in four underemployed female workers is in the age group 35-44 years
Women in age group 35-44 years comprised the largest proportion, at 26.9 percent, of the total 2.1 million underemployed women, (Figure 1 and Table 1) while those in the age group 25-34 years (24.4%) made up the second largest percentage.
By comparison, the largest proportion of underemployed males were aged 25 to 34 years, making up 27.5 percent of the 4.8 million underemployed male workers, and those aged 35 to 44 years comprised the second largest proportion (25.0%).
One-fourth of underemployed women are high school graduates
One in every four (26.7%) of the 2.1 million underemployed women had finished at most high school level (Figure 2 and Table 1). Some 7.9 percent had reached college level and 12.4 percent were college graduates.
In comparison, 26.9 percent of underemployed male workers were high school graduates, 6.5 percent were college level and 5.6 percent were college graduates.
Half of the underemployed female workers are wage and salary workers
Fifty percent of the 2.1 million underemployed female workers reported in October 2013 were wage and salary workers. The majority of them worked in private establishments (31.4% of the total underemployed female workers). Underemployed female workers in the government and government-controlled corporations comprised 8.6 percent of the total underemployed female workers, while those working in private households accounted for 10.2 percent (Table 1).
Underemployed female workers who were reported as self-employed without any paid employee made up 31.5 percent of the total underemployed female workers, while those who worked without pay in own family-operated farm or business accounted for 17.1 percent (Figure 3).
Similarly, the largest percentage of underemployed males were wage and salary workers comprising 56.4 percent of the 4.8 million underemployed male workers. Most of them worked in private establishments (51.9% of the total underemployed males). Underemployed males in the government and government-controlled corporations made up 3.6 percent of the total underemployed male workers (Table 1).
Six in ten of the underemployed women are in the services sector
Of the underemployed female workers, those in the services sector accounted for 58.9 percent, with the majority of them (21.8% of the total underemployed females) working in the sub-sector of wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles, and personal household goods. Those working in the industry sector made up 10.9 percent, most of them in the manufacturing sub-sector, making up 10.2 percent of the total underemployed women.
By comparison, the largest group of underemployed male workers were in the agriculture sector comprising 51.9 percent of the total 4.8 million underemployed male workers. Seventeen percent (16.9%) of the total underemployed male workers were in the industry sector, mainly in construction (9.2% of the total underemployed males) and manufacturing (6.2%).
Three in five underemployed female workers are visibly underemployed
Visibly underemployed women made up 67.0 percent of the total underemployed female workers. Visibly underemployed workers refer to those working for less than 40 hours during the reference week. Those working for 40 hours or more accounted for 31.9 percent of the total underemployed women (Table 2).
By comparison, visibly underemployed men comprised 60.6 percent of the total underemployed male workers.