According to the 2010 Annual Poverty Indicators Survey (APIS) conducted by the National Statistics Office in August 2010, four in every ten families (41.3%) nationwide had at least one member who purposely saw a government official or personnel or visited a government office to secure permit or licenses, pay taxes, avail of social services or seek assistance from police or court during the 12 month-period prior to the survey (Table 1). Of those who saw a government official or personnel or went to a government office for the cited reasons, about 9 percent gave money or gift or favor or anything of value to facilitate or avoid getting problems with their transaction (Figure 1). In this survey, such giving of money or gift or favor or anything of value was classified into two types: supply-driven wherein a person voluntarily gives money or gift or favor or anything of value, and demand-driven wherein a person was asked to give it. The survey revealed that 75 percent of families with at least one member who gave money or gift or favor to facilitate securing or availing of a service from a government office voluntarily gave the money or gift or favor. The other 25 percent were asked to give it (Figure 2). The survey also revealed that less than one percent of those who did not voluntarily give money or gift or favor, reported the incident to anyone in authority.
In the survey, families were classified as poor or non-poor by grouping them into two income strata according to their per capita income. Families who fall at the bottom 30% per capita income stratum were considered as poor while those at the upper 70% were classified as non-poor. The survey revealed that 10 percent of non-poor families give money, gift or favor in order to facilitate their transactions with a government office, compared to 7 percent of poor families. Among poor families who gave money, gift, or favor to facilitate their transaction with a government office, about 32 percent did so involuntarily, compared with 24 percent among the non-poor families (Table 2).
Among the regions, Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao had the highest incidence of giving money or gift or favor to facilitate their transactions with a government office at 42 percent of families, followed by SOCCSKSARGEN (27%), and Central Luzon (16%) (Table 1).
The 2010 Annual Poverty Indicators Survey (APIS) is a nationwide survey covering around 26,000 sample households. The survey is designed to provide non-income indicators related to poverty, and provides data on the socio-economic profile of families and other information that are related to their living conditions. In this round of APIS, questions aimed at gathering information to describe the extent or pervasiveness of giving money, gift or favor to facilitate securing or availing of a service from a government office were included in order to establish an empirical baseline data on bribery.