Integrated Survey on Labor and Employment (ISLE)

Highlights of the 2019/2020 Integrated Survey on Labor and Employment (ISLE) - Modules on Employment; Occupational Shortages and Surpluses; and Job-Related Training of Workers

Reference Number: 2022-211
Release Date: 12 August 2022


Employment in establishments reached 5.32 million

  • At the end of June 2020, there were about 5,321,630 workers working in establishments with 20 or more employees.  This was an increase of 4.8 percent relative to the 5,077,410 million workers in June 2018. (Table 1)
  • Industry-specific, administrative and support services activities registered the most number of employed individuals at 27.3 percent of total employment. Manufacturing came next with 19.0 percent while wholesale and retail trade industry ranked third with 14.4 percent. (Figure 1 and Table 1)

Rank-and-file workers comprised most of the workforce

  • Bulk of the employed persons were rank-and-file workers, constituting 86.8 percent of the total employment. Neither supervisors/foremen (7.9%) nor managers/executives (4.7%) accounted for more than 10 percent. Less than one percent (0.6%) was the combined shares of owners working for their own companies and unpaid family workers. (Figure 2)

Four out of every nine workers are female

  • About forty-four percent of the estimated 5.32 million employed persons in June 2020 are female. Of the total female employees, 85.6 percent were rank and file; 8.4 percent were holding supervisory positions, 5.4 percent were managerial; and less than one percent were working owners and unpaid workers. (Figure 3 and Table 1a)

By specific group of workers

  • Workers who were paid the exact minimum wage recorded a 27.4 percent share of total employment. On the other hand, the share of workers under alternative work arrangements was reported at 10.9 percent that can be attributed to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Workers on the evening/graveyard shifts accumulated a 7.4 percent share whereas those persons with disabilities (PWD) workers contributed a minimal share of 0.3 percent. (Figure 4 and Table 2)

Establishments employing agency-hired workers

  • As of June 2020, 42.6 percent of the total establishments employing 20 or more workers outsourced services of workers from manpower agencies. Across industries, establishments in electricity, gas, steam, and air conditioning supply (79.5%) topped the list in terms of the highest proportion of establishments with agency hired workers. Manufacturing came in second (57.3%), followed by activities of human health and social work and mining and quarrying both ranking third with 47.9 percent each. (Table 3)


Job vacancies by sector

  • A total of 315,134 vacancies of various positions in all industries were available in the labor market during the period July 2019 to June 2020.
  • The services sector recorded the highest number of job openings at 65.6 percent of the total vacancies. The industry sector otherwise reported 34.0 percent; while the agriculture, forestry, and fishing sector accounted for the remaining 0.4 percent. (Figure 5 and Table 4)

Job vacancies by category

  • Majority or 69.4 percent of the job vacancies were easy-to-fill meaning that establishments had no difficulties during recruitment/filling-up the positions. On the contrary, 30.6 percent vacancies were considered hard-to-fill due to problems encountered such as lack of or few applicants; lack of years of experience, skills or license; applicants’ expectation of high salaries and other reasons. (Figure 6)


Establishments with job-related training provided to workers

  • Out of 38,305 establishments, 47.9 percent has provided job-related training to their employees in 2019. (Table 5)
  • Among industry groups, the highest proportion of establishments with training provided to their workers was posted in financial and insurance activities (80.2%).  This was followed by establishments engaged in water supply; sewerage, waste management, and remediation activities (67.3%) and repair of computers and personal and household goods; other personal service activities (62.0%). (Figure 7)



National Statistician and Civil Registrar General


See more at the Integrated Survey on Labor and Employment Landing Page.


Survey Information:

Part 2: Employment - requires data on total employment and its breakdown into classification of workers: working owners, unpaid workers and paid employees which include managers/executives, supervisors/foremen, and regular and non-regular rank and file workers. It also gathers data on employment of various specific age group such as young and older workers, persons with disabilities, workers paid the exact minimum wage, time-rated workers, commission workers, output-rated workers; workers who work on evening/graveyard shifts and workers under alternative work  arrangements. The number of workers hired through agencies/contractors and the types of processes outsourced/contracted-out are also being asked. Corresponding count of female employment for some items of inquiry are also required under total employment and employment of specific groups of workers.

Part 4: Occupational Shortages and Surpluses - inquires about job vacancies in the establishments during the reference period. For each specific job title/occupation, it gathers information on the type and status of vacant position, number of vacancies and applicants, hard or easy to fill occupations, length of recruitment period, reason why occupations are hard to fill, skills requirement in filling-up of vacancies, required length of experience, mode in sourcing job applicants, and newly created and emerging occupations.

Part 5: Job-related Training of Workers - inquires on the provision of job-related trainings by the establishments to their employees, number of employees provided job related trainings, training costs and training providers (e.g., government training institutions, private training institutions, in-house trainings or other establishments, etc.).


Establishment - an economic unit, which engages under a single ownership or control, i.e. under a single legal entity, in one or predominantly one kind of economic activity at a single fixed physical location.

Total Employment refers to the total number of persons whether paid or unpaid, who work in or for this establishment


  • working owners with or without regular pay;
  • salaried directors, managers and executives;
  • regular and non-regular workers, e.g., probationary, casual, contractual/project-based, seasonal, paid apprentices/learners;
  • workers on paid vacation, sick, maternity, paternity, service incentive leave and other paid leaves;
  • persons working away from the establishment but paid by and under its control, e.g., bus drivers;
  • workers on strike/lockout; unpaid workers without regular pay who work for at least 1/3 of the working time normal to the establishment.


  • silent or inactive partners;
  • members of the board of directors paid solely for attendance at meetings;
  • consultants, persons on retainer basis, contract out/agency-hired workers, homeworkers;
  • workers on indefinite leave, laid-off workers for six (6) months or more; workers paid purely on commission without employer control;
  • students under on-the-job training (OJT).

Working owners refer to owners who are already engaged in the management of the establishment but do not receive regular pay.

Unpaid workers refer to workers without regular pay who work for at least one-third of the working time normal to the establishment.

Paid Employees refer to workers who work as full-time and part-time employees working in or for the establishment and receiving regular pay, as well as those working away from this establishment and paid by and under the control of this establishment. This includes managers/executives, supervisors/foremen, rank and file and working owners receiving regular pay.

Managers/Executives refer to workers whose main responsibilities are to determine and formulate policies and plan, direct, control and coordinate the activities of enterprises and organizations, or their internal departments or sections. Working owners receiving regular pay are included.

Supervisors/Foremen refer to workers whose main responsibilities are to plan, direct, organize and supervise the daily activities of workers in the section or unit concerned with the production of goods or the provision of services, subject to the general directive of managers.

Rank and file workers refer to workers who do not fall within the managerial or supervisory classification of employees.

Regular workers refer to workers hired to perform activities which are usually necessary or desirable in the usual business or trade of the employer and usually worked on permanent status.

Non-regular workers refer to workers who worked on temporary status for a particular project or specific period of time; classified into probationary, casual, contractual, seasonal or apprentices/learners.

Young workers refer to workers aged 15 to 24 years old (UN definition), or 15-30 years old (Philippine definition) as of reference date.

Older workers refer to workers aged 50 to 65 years old as of reference date.

Persons with Disabilities (PWDs) refer to workers who have physical, mental or sensory impairments which may hinder their full and effective participation in the workplace on an equal basis with others.

Workers paid the exact minimum wage refer to workers who are paid the applicable minimum wage rates fixed by the Regional Tripartite Wages and Productivity Boards.

Time-rated workers refer to workers paid on the basis of a time unit of work such as an hour, a day or a month.

Full-time workers refer to workers paid on the basis of a time unit of work and who work at jobs with hours of work equal to or more than those considered as normal to the establishment.

Part-time workers refer to workers who work at jobs which provide less than the working time normal to the establishment.

Workers who work on evening/graveyard shifts refer to workers who work on shifts that wholly or partly cover the 10:00 P.M. to 6:00 A.M. window, excluding agency-hired workers.

Telecommuting refers to a work from an alternative workplace with the use of telecommunication and/or computer technologies as stated in the Republic Act No. 11165 otherwise known as Telecommuting Act also referred to as Work from Home Law.

Skeleton workforce refers to “the operational capacity which utilizes the smallest number of people needed for a business or organization to maintain its basic functions.”

Other alternative work schemes refer to any other work arrangements which may be temporary in nature such as reduction of normal workdays, job rotation, etc.

Outsourcing/Contracting out refer to an arrangement whereby a principal agrees to put out or farm out with a contractor the performance or completion of a specific job, work or service within a definite or predetermined period, regardless of whether such job, work or service is to be performed or completed within or outside the premises of the principal.

Workers hired through agencies/contractors refer to workers employed by the contractors to perform or complete a job, work or service pursuant to a service agreement within the premises of the establishment. They are excluded from the total employment of the establishment.


Job Vacancies refer to unfilled job openings which are immediately available for placement and for which active recruitment steps are being undertaken anytime during the reference period.

EXCLUDE: Vacancies with the following conditions: a) positions not paid through the establishment’s payroll; b) ONLY available to be filled by internal applicants; c) work to be carried out by contractors; and d) to be filled by staff from contract labor agencies.

Entry-level Jobs refer to starting positions that require little or no experience. Otherwise, the job is classified as junior, senior or executive level position.

Hard-to-Fill Vacancies refer to those job vacancies for which an establishment has encountered difficulties in recruitment, otherwise, they are considered easy-to-fill vacancies.

Hard Skills refer to capabilities that are job or occupation specific (e.g., computer programming, welding skills, carpentry skills, etc.).

Soft Skills refer to a broad set of skills, competencies behaviors, attitudes, and personal qualities that enable people to effectively navigate their environment, work well with others, perform well, and achieve their goals (e.g., flexibility/adaptability, effective communication skills, problem solving, etc.).


Job-related trainings - trainings to employees to acquire knowledge or new skills for a current job or a future job conducted by the establishment and by other institutions. General orientations, team buildings and similar activities are excluded.

Statistical Tables


2019/2020 ISLE Questionnaire