Age and Sex Distribution in the Philippine Population (2020 Census of Population and Housing)
Based on the 2020 Census of Population and Housing (2020 CPH), the Philippines had a total population of 109,035,343 persons. Of this total, the household population comprised 99.7 percent or 108,667,043 persons.
Of the 108.67 million household population in 2020, 55.02 million (50.6%) were males while 53.65 million (49.4%) were females. By age group, 33.4 million (30.7%) were under 15 years of age (young dependents). On the other hand, persons aged 15 to 64 years (working-age or economically-active population) totaled to 69.40 million (63.9%) while those in age groups 65 years and over (old dependents) comprised the remaining 5.86 million (5.4%). In 2015, persons aged 0 to 14 years, 15 to 64 years, and 65 years and over accounted for 32.0, 63.3, and 4.8 percent, respectively, of the household population.
Moreover, there were more males (88.8%) than females (86.6%) among the 0 to 54 age group. Meanwhile, among the older age group (55 years and over), females (13.4%) outnumbered the males (11.2%). The same trend was also observed in 2015.
Sex ratio stands at 103 males per 100 females
1. The sex ratio in the Philippines was computed at 103 in 2020. This means that there were 103 males for every 100 females. The sex ratio in 2015 was slightly lower at 102 males per 100 females. (Figure 2)
2. In 2020, children aged below 15 years had a sex ratio of 107 males per 100 females, while those aged 15 to 64 years had a sex ratio of 103 males per 100 females. Moreover, among those aged 65 years and over, the sex ratio was 73 males per 100 females. This depicts a longer life expectancy among females than males or a higher mortality rate among males than females in the older age groups. (Figure 2)
Median age increases to 25.3 years
3. The median age of the Philippine population continues to rise during the past three decades. In 2020, the median age was computed at 25.3 years, which means that half of the household population was younger than 25.3 years, while the other half is older than 25.3 years. This is higher than the median ages of 24.3 years and 23.3 years that were posted in 2015 and 2010, respectively. (Figure 3)
Dependency ratio declines to 57 dependents per 100 persons in the working-age group
4. The overall dependency ratio of the Philippines was computed at 57, which indicates that for every 100 working-age or economically-active population, there were about 57 dependents (48 young dependents and 8 old dependents). This is lower than the dependency ratio in 2015, which was recorded at 58 dependents per 100 working-age population (50 young dependents and 8 old dependents). (Table 1)
There are more males than females in children under five years old
5. Children below five years old comprised 10.2 percent (11.07 million) of the household population which is slightly lower than the 10.8 percent (10.82 million) posted in 2015. The sex ratio remained at 107 males per 100 females in 2015 and 2020. (Table 2)
About two in every five household population are of school age
6. In 2020, the school-age population (5 to 24 years old) accounted for 42.78 million (39.4%) of the 108.67 million household population compared to the 40.84 million (40.6%) school-age population that was reported in 2015. (Table 2 and Figure 4)
Youth accounts for less than a third of the household population
7. Youth or persons whose age ranges from 15 to 30 years totaled to 31.40 million or about 28.9 percent of the household population in 2020, higher than the 29.39 million (29.2%) recorded in 2015. In the Philippines, individuals belonging to this age group are considered of voting age for the Sangguniang Kabataan in accordance with Republic Act No. 8044 (Sangguniang Kabataan Act of 2015). (Table 2)
About 63 percent of the household population is of voting age
8. The voting-age population (18 years old and over) accounted for 63.4 percent (68.95 million) of the household population in 2020, up from 61.9 percent (62.26 million) in 2015. (Table 2 and Figure 5)
Senior citizens constitute 8.5 percent of the household population
9. In the Philippines, people aged 60 years old and over are regarded as senior citizens. They made up 8.5 percent (9.22 million) of the household population in 2020, higher than the 7.5 percent (7.53 million) recorded in 2015. There were more females (55.5%) than males (44.5%) among the senior citizens, in 2020. The same trend was observed in 2015. (Table 2 and Figure 6)
More than half of the female population are of reproductive age
10. Women of reproductive age (15 to 49 years old) totaled to 27.85 million or 51.9 percent of the 53.65 million female household population in 2020. These figures were lower compared with the 52.2 percent (26.02 million) posted in 2015. (Table 2 and Figure 7)
Aging index increases by 4.2 points from 23.4 in 2015 to 27.6 in 2020
11. In the Philippines, the aging index or the proportion of persons aged 60 years and over per 100 persons under the age of 15 years was computed at 27.6 percent in 2020. This means that there is one person aged 60 years and over for every four children under 15 years old. In 2015, the aging index was 4.2 points lower at 23.4. (Table 2 and Figure 8)
DENNIS S. MAPA, Ph.D.
National Statistician and Civil Registrar General