The annual employment rate for 2012 was estimated at 93.0 percent and the annual unemployment rate, at 7.0 percent. Meanwhile, the underemployment rate was 20.0 percent.
The total employed persons reached 37.6 million (Table 1). Of this number, more than half (52.6%) were in the services sector with those engaged in wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles comprising the largest group in this sector (18.3% of the total employed). One–third (33.4%) of the total employed were laborers and unskilled workers. Those who were wage and salary workers numbered 21.5 million, making up 57.2 percent of the total employed persons. Of the wage and salary workers, 16.4 million worked in private establishments making up 43.6 percent of the total employed persons.
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