More than 60 percent of the population 15 years old and over are in the labor force
In April 2018, the total population 15 years old and over was estimated at 71.0 million wherein the number of persons who were in the labor force was reported at 43.3 million. This placed the labor force participation rate (LFPR) at 60.9 percent, which means that three in five of the population aged 15 years and over were either employed or unemployed.
Region XIII (Caraga) had the highest reported LFPR with 66.1 percent while the lowest LFPR reported was in Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) at 44.3 percent (Table 1 and Figure 1).
Employment rate is recorded at 94.5 percent
The total number of employed persons was estimated at 40.9 million. The employment rate reported or the proportion of employed persons to total labor force was 94.5 percent (Table 1 and Figure 2).
More males are employed than females
Three in every five (61.9%) of the estimated 40.9 million employed persons in April 2018 were males. Employed females were reported at 38.1 percent of the total employed persons (Table 3 and Figure 3).
The largest number of employed persons were in the age group 25 to 34 years with 26.9 percent of the total employed. The 35 to 44 age group comprised the second largest group (22.8%), while the 45 to 54 age group made up the third largest group (18.6%).
More than half of the employed persons are working in services sector
The employed persons were grouped in three broad sectors, namely: agriculture, industry, and services sector. Workers in the services sector composed the largest proportion of the employed population. These employed persons made up 56.4 percent of the total employed in April 2018 and 55.4 percent in April 2017. Workers in the agriculture sector composed the second largest group making up 23.9 percent in April 2018 and 26.1 percent in April 2017. Workers in the industry sector made up the smallest group registering 19.7 percent in April 2018 and 18.5 percent in April 2017 (Table 4 and Figure 4).
Classified according to sub-sector or major industry groups, workers in the agriculture, hunting and forestry composed the biggest percentage of the total employed persons in April 2018 (21.2%) and April 2017 (23.0%). Those in the wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles ranked next at 19.3 percent of the total employed in April 2018 and 19.6 percent in April 2017 (Table 4).
More than one-fourth of employed persons are in elementary occupations
Among the occupation groups, workers in elementary occupations made up the largest group making up 26.6 percent of the total employed persons in April 2018 and 26.8 percent in April 2017 (Table 5 and Figure 5). Managers were the second largest group of workers with 16.0 percent in April 2018 and 16.3 percent in April 2017, followed by service and sales workers (14.8%) in April 2018 and (15.0%) in April 2017 and skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers (12.5%) in April 2018, and (13.5%) in April 2017 (Table 5 and Figure 5).
More than 60 percent of the employed persons are wage and salary workers
Employed persons were categorized as wage and salary workers, self-employed without any paid employee, employer in own family-operated farm or business, and worked without pay in own family-operated farm or business or unpaid family workers.
Wage and salary workers are those who work for private households, private establishments, government or government corporations, and those who work with pay in own family-operated farm or business.
In April 2018, the wage and salary workers made up 63.8 percent of the total employed persons. Those who worked in private establishments accounted for the largest share (50.3%) and those working in government or government corporations accounted at 8.4 percent (Table 6). About 27.2 percent of the total employed persons were self-employed without any paid employee or those who were engaged in self-employment. The unpaid family workers made up 5.3 percent and the employer in own family-operated farm or business, 3.7 percent. In April 2017, wage and salary workers registered at 61.3 percent of the total employed persons. Those who worked in private establishments made up 48.8 percent, and those working in government or government corporations accounted at 7.8 percent (Table 6).
Classified according to broad industry group, three in every five (60.9%) of employer in own family-operated farm or business and those unpaid family workers (55.9%) were in the agriculture sector. Whereas almost sixty percent (59.5%) of wage and salary workers and more than half of the self-employed without any paid employee (56.2%) were in the services sector (Table 7 and Figure 6).
Sixty eight percent of the total employed persons are full-time workers
Employed persons are classified as either full-time workers or part-time workers. Full-time workers are those who work for 40 hours or more during the reference week while part-time workers work for less than 40 hours.
Of the total employed persons in April 2018, 68.0 percent were full-time workers, while 31.0 percent were part-time workers (Table 8). In April 2017, full time workers comprised 60.8 percent of the total employed persons, while part-time workers, 37.8 percent. Those with a job but not at work was accounted at 1.1 percent in April 2018 and 1.4 percent in April 2017 (Table 8).
Underemployment rate is registered at 17.0 percent
The underemployed persons or those employed persons who express the desire to have additional hours of work in their present job, or to have additional job, or to have a new job with longer working hours were estimated at 6.9 million persons corresponding to an underemployment rate of 17.0 percent (Tables 1 and 2).
By sector, 47.1 percent of the underemployed persons in April 2018 worked in the services sector, while 32.4 percent were in the agriculture sector. Those in the industry sector accounted for 20.5 percent (Figure 7).
Underemployed persons who work for less than 40 hours in a week are called visibly underemployed. They accounted for more than half (52.6%) of the total underemployed in April 2018. By comparison, the underemployed persons who worked for 40 hours or more in a week made up 46.0 percent. (Table 9).
Unemployment rate reaches 5.5 percent
In April 2018, the unemployed persons numbered 2.4 million resulting to an unemployment rate of 5.5 percent (Tables 1 and 2). Among the regions, Ilocos Region (7.3%), CALABARZON (6.6%), NCR (6.4%) and Central Visayas (5.7%) were the regions with unemployment rates higher than the national figure (Table 1 and Figure 8).
There were more unemployed males (62.7%) than unemployed females (37.3%) (Table 3). By educational attainment, 28.9 percent of the unemployed were junior high school graduates, and 19.6 percent were college graduates (Table 10).
Seven in ten persons who are not in the labor force are women
In April 2018, about 27.8 million or 39.1 percent of the total population 15 years old and over were not in the labor force (Table 3). These include housewives, students, persons with disability, and those who have retired from their employment. About 68.3 percent of those not in the labor force were women.
By age group, 43.3 percent of those not in the labor force belonged to the age group 15 to 24 years (Table 3 and Figure 9).
- The labor force population in April 2018 was estimated at 43.3 million. This translates to a labor force participation rate (LFPR) of 60.9 percent.
- Total employed persons were approximately 40.9 million, resulting to a national employment rate of 94.5 percent.
- More than half (56.4%) of the total employed were in the services sector, 23.9 percent were in the agriculture sector and 19.7 percent were in the industry sector.
- Workers in elementary occupations made up the largest proportion of employed persons as they comprised 26.6 percent of the total employed population.
- Total unemployed persons were estimated at 2.4 million which translates to an unemployment rate of 5.5 percent.
- Underemployment rate was estimated at 17.0 percent.
(Sgd.) LISA GRACE S. BERSALES, Ph.D.
National Statistician and Civil Registrar General
The Labor Force Survey (LFS) is a nationwide quarterly survey conducted by the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) during the months of January, April, July, and October. For this release, the data being presented are based on the final results of the April 2018 round of the LFS.
The reference period used in the survey is the past seven (7) days preceding the date of interview of the enumerator.
The concepts and definitions used in the survey can be found in PSA Integrated Survey of Households (ISH) Bulletins. Some are given below:
a. Labor Force – refers to the population 15 years old and over who contribute to the production of goods and services in the country. It comprises the employed and unemployed.
b. Employed – refers to persons in the labor force who are reported either as at work or with a job or business although not at work. Persons at work are those who did some work, even for an hour during the reference period.
c. Unemployed – refers to persons in the labor force who are reported as:
1. without work; and
2. currently available for work; and
3. seeking work or not seeking work due to the following reasons:
i. belief that no work is available, or
ii. awaiting results of previous job application, or
iii. because of temporary illness or disability, or
iv. bad weather, or
v. waiting for rehire or job recall.
d. Underemployed – refers to employed persons who express the desire to have additional hours of work in their present job or an additional job, or a new job with longer working hours.
e. Labor Force Participation Rate (LFPR) – refers to the proportion of total labor force to the total household population 15 years old and over.
f. Employment Rate – refers to the proportion of employed persons to the total labor force.
g. Unemployment Rate – refers to the proportion of unemployed persons to the total labor force.
h. Underemployment Rate – refers to the proportion of underemployed persons to total employed persons.