Sixty percent of the population 15 years old and over are in the labor force
The number of persons who were in the labor force was reported at 43.0 million of the estimated 71.6 million population 15 years old and over in July 2018. This translates to a labor force participation rate (LFPR) of 60.1 percent, which means that six in ten of the population aged 15 years and over were either employed or unemployed. Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) had the highest reported LFPR with 63.0 percent while the lowest LFPR reported was in Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao at 46.2 percent (Table 1 and Figure 1).
Employment rate registers at 94.6 percent
The total number of employed persons was estimated at 40.6 million. The employment rate reported or the proportion of employed persons to total labor force was 94.6 percent (Table 1).
Region II (Cagayan Valley) had the highest employment rate with 97.4 percent. Five of the 17 regions, namely: Ilocos Region (93.5%), Region V (Bicol Region) (93.6%), Region III (Central Luzon) and Region IV-A (CALABARZON) (93.7%) and National Capital Region (NCR) (93.9%) registered an employment rate lower than the national figure of 94.6 percent (Table 1 and Figure 2).
More males are employed than females
Six in every ten of the estimated 40.6 million employed persons in July 2018 were males.
The largest number of employed persons consists of age group 25 to 34 years with 26.9 percent of the total employed. The 35 to 44 age group comprised the second largest group (23.2%), while the 45 to 54 age group made up the third largest group (18.8%). Employed females were reported at 38.3 percent of the 40.6 million total employed persons (Table 3 and Figure 3).
More than half of employed persons are in the services sector
Although employment in the services sector went down in July 2018, it remained the highest group at 57.5 percent of the total employed, from 55.6 percent in July 2017.
Share of agriculture sector to total employment posted a decrease of 2.1 percentage points, from a contribution of 25.2 percent in July 2017 to 23.1 percent in July 2018. In the industry sector, share of manufacturing sub-sector showed a slight increase, from 8.7 percent in July 2017 to 9.0 percent in July 2018 (Table 4 and Figure 4).
Among workers in the services sector, those engaged in wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles made up the largest percentage with 19.2 percent of the total employed (Table 4).
More than one-fourth of employed persons are in elementary occupations
Across occupation groups, workers in elementary occupations made up the largest percentage of 26.7 percent of the 40.6 million total employed population. Managers followed as the second largest group of workers with 15.8 percent. Service and sales workers came in third with 15.1 percent. Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers were accounted at 11.8 percent (Table 5 and Figure 5).
Sixty-five percent of employed persons are wage and salary workers
Employed persons were categorized as wage and salary workers, self-employed without any paid employee, employer in own family-operated farm or business and unpaid family workers.
Wage and salary workers are those who work for private households, private establishments, government and government-controlled corporations and those who work with pay in own family-operated farm or business. In July 2018, wage and salary workers were registered at 65.3 percent. Those who worked in private establishments made up 51.0 percent and those working in government and government-controlled corporations were accounted at 9.1 percent (Table 6).
Classified according to broad industry group, 57.0 percent of unpaid family workers were in the agriculture sector. In contrast, sixty percent (60.5%) of wage and salary workers were in the services sector. Majority (64.6%) of those who were employer in own-family operated farm or business were engaged in agriculture. In addition, more than half (59.6%) of self employed without any paid employee worked in the services sector (Table 7 and Figure 6).
More than seventy percent of employed persons work full time
Employed workers are classified as either full-time or part-time workers. Full-time workers are those who work for 40 hours or more while part-time workers work for less than 40 hours. Full-time workers comprised 71.3 percent of the total employed persons in July 2018. Those who worked for 40 to 48 hours made up a larger proportion of 48.8 percent, while those who worked more than 48 hours comprised 22.4 percent. Part-time workers comprised 28.2 percent of the total employed (Table 8).
Underemployment rate is registered at 17.2 percent
Underemployed persons were estimated at 7.0 million in July 2018. This number represented 17.2 percent of the total employed persons (Table 1). Underemployed persons are employed persons who express the desire to have additional hours of work in their present job or to have additional job, or have a new job with longer working hours.
Among the broad industry group, underemployed persons were highest in the services sector at 46.8 percent, 32.4 percent in the agriculture sector and 20.8 percent in the industry sector (Figure 7).
Visibly underemployed, or those persons who had been working for less than 40 hours a week accounted for 46.6 percent, a large percentage (60.1%) of which were in the agriculture sector (Table 9).
Unemployment rate reaches 5.4 percent
Of the total 43.0 million 15 years old and over who are economically active, 2.4 million were unemployed which placed the country's unemployment rate to 5.4 percent (Tables 1 and 2).
Unemployment rates in Ilocos Region (6.5%), Bicol Region (6.4%), Central Luzon and CALABARZON (6.3%), National Capital Region (6.1%) and Western Visayas (5.7%) were higher than the national figure of 5.4 percent (Table 1 and Figure 8).
More males (61.1%) were unemployed than females (38.9%). About 45 percent of the unemployed persons were in age group 15 to 24 years (Table 3).
Across educational groups, 39.9 percent of unemployed persons were at least junior high school, including high school graduates from the old curriculum, 36.9 percent reached college wherein 18.9 were graduates, 7.3 percent were elementary graduates, and 4.8 percent were graduates of post secondary courses (Table 10).
Seven in every ten persons not in the labor force are women
Forty percent of the 71.6 million population 15 years old and over in July 2018 were not in the labor force. These include housewives, students, persons with disability, and those who have retired from their employment. About seventy percent (67.2%) were women.
By age group, 44.2 percent of persons not in the labor force were in age group 15-24 years (Table 3 and Figure 9).
The labor force population in July 2018 was estimated at 43.0 million. This translates to a labor force participation rate (LFPR) of 60.1 percent.
Total employed persons were approximately 40.6 million, resulting to a national employment rate of 94.6 percent.
More than half (57.5%) of the total employed were in the services sector, 23.1 percent were in the agriculture sector, and 19.4 percent were in the industry sector.
Workers in elementary occupations made up the largest proportion of employed persons as they comprised 26.7 percent of the total employed population.
Total unemployed persons was 2.3 million which translates to an unemployment rate of 5.4 percent.
Underemployment rate was estimated at 17.2 percent.
FOR THE NATIONAL STATISTICIAN:
(Sgd.)JOSIE B. PEREZ
Deputy National Statistician
The Labor Force Survey (LFS) is a nationwide quarterly survey conducted by the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) during the months of January, April, July, and October. For this release, the data being presented are based on the final results of the July 2018 round of the LFS.
The reference period used in the survey is the past seven (7) days preceding the date of interview of the enumerator.
The concepts and definitions used in the survey can be found in PSA Integrated Survey of Households (ISH) Bulletins. Some are given below:
a. Labor Force – refers to the population 15 years old and over who contribute to the production of goods and services in the country. It comprises the employed and unemployed.
b. Employed – refers to persons in the labor force who are reported either as at work or with a job or business although not at work. Persons at work are those who did some work, even for an hour during the reference period.
c. Unemployed – refers to persons in the labor force who are reported as:
1. without work; and
2. currently available for work; and
3. seeking work or not seeking work due to the following reasons:
i. belief that no work is available, or
ii. awaiting results of previous job application, or
iii. because of temporary illness or disability, or
iv. bad weather, or
v. waiting for rehire or job recall.
d. Underemployed – refers to employed persons who express the desire to have additional hours of work in their present job or an additional job, or a new job with longer working hours.
e. Labor Force Participation Rate (LFPR) – refers to the proportion of total labor force to the total household population 15 years old and over.
f. Employment Rate – refers to the proportion of employed persons to the total labor force.
g. Unemployment Rate – refers to the proportion of unemployed persons to the total labor force.
h. Underemployment Rate – refers to the proportion of underemployed persons to total employed persons.
Starting January 2012 LFS, the codes for industry adopted the 2009 Philippine Standard Industrial Classification (PSIC). Prior to this, codes for industry used the 1994 PSIC.
Question on vocational course was introduced in the January 2012 Labor Force Survey (LFS) questionnaire.
Starting April 2016 round, the LFS adopted the 2013 Master Sample Design, with a sample size of approximately 45,000 households.
The 2012 Philippine Standard Occupational Classification (PSOC) was adopted starting April 2016. The 1992 PSOC had been used prior to April 2016
Starting with the April 2016 LFS round, the population projections based on the 2010 Census of Population and Housing (2010 CPH) was adopted to generate the labor force statistics.
Overseas Filipino Workers are not considered part of the labor force in the Philippines. Hence, in the LFS, data on economic characteristics of household members who are overseas workers are not collected. In LFS reports, they are excluded in the estimation of the size of working population, that is, population aged 15 years and older, and in the estimation of the labor force.