Philippine Labor Force Survey April 2001

Reference Number: 2001-038
Release Date: June 14, 2001


Philippines April
Total 15 years old &
over (in 000)
48,742 48,405 48,076 47,800 47,500
Labor force (in 000)
Participation rate (%)
Employment (in 000)
Rate (%)
Unemployment (in 000)
Rate (%)
Underemployment (000)
Rate (%)

Note: All estimates use the 1995 Census-based Population Projection

  • Labor force population in April 2001 of 33.6 million was 2.0 million more than that in April 2000. Labor force participation rate, likewise, increased to 69.0% from 66.5%.

  • Employed persons numbering to 29.2 million increased by 7.2% in April 2001 from its level last year.

    • Employment in agriculture rose by 10.9 percent to 10.9 million from 9.8 million a year ago.

    • In industry, employment was up by 244 thousand or by 5.4 percent.

    • Services employment increased by 637 thousand or by 5.0 percent.

  • Unemployment rate was down to 13.3 percent from 13.9 percent last year.

  • Underemployment rate decreased by 7.2 percentage points, from 24.7 percent in April last year to 17.5 percent.


Persons aged 15 years old and over...

  • Persons aged 15 years old and over reached 48.7 million in April 2001. This represents an increase of 1.2 million (or by 2.6%) from 47.5 million last April 2000.

Of the 48.7 million persons 15 years old and over, there were those who joined the labor force ...

  • The labor force population, which is composed of the employed and the unemployed, increased by 2.0 million (or by 6.4%) from 31.6 million in April 2000 to 33.6 million in April 2001. Labor force population generally increases in April as a great number of students and graduates are joining the labor force.

  • Persons not in the labor force like housewives, students, disabled and retired decreased by 5.0 percent, from 15.9 million a year ago to 15.1 million this April.

Of the 33.6 million persons in the labor force, there were those who were employed and those who were not ...

  • Employed persons in April 2001 increased by 2.0 million (by 7.2%) to 29.2 million from 27.2 million.

  • The corresponding employment rate also increased from 86.1 percent to 86.7 percent.

Of the 29.2 million persons employed, there were those either working in agriculture, industry or services ...

  • All sectors registered increases in employment with the agriculture sector posting the highest increment at 10.9 percent. Unpaid family workers contributed much to the increase in agricultural employment. This group registered an increase of 28.4 percent, from 2.3 million last year to 3.0 million this year. Own-account workers also contributed to the increase, from 5.0 million to 5.4 million.

  • The industry sector also increased by 5.4 percent to 4.8 million from 4.5 million a year ago. While unpaid family workers also contributed to the increase in employment, its share to total employed decreased by 0.3 percentage point, from 16.7 percent to 16.4 percent.

  • The services sector increased by 5.0 percent but its share to total employed decreased by 0.9 percentage point, from 47.1 percent to 46.2 percent. A remarkable increase (28.3%) in the number of unpaid family workers in this sector was noted.

The employed in agriculture ...

  • About 10.9 million or 37.4 percent of the total employed worked in the agriculture, fishery and forestry industry in April 2001. This was higher compared to 9.8 million in April 2000 an accounted for the 36.2 percent share to total employed.

The employed in industry�

  • Employment in industry sector increased to 4.8 million in April 2001 from 4.5 million a year ago. This could be due to the increases posted in manufacturing (154 thousand), and construction (119 thousand). Employment in electricity declined by 16 thousand and in mining by 13 thousand.

The employed in services�

  • Wholesale and retail trade posted the biggest increase of 764 thousand. Transport, storage and communication also increased by 148 thousand along with financing, insurance, real estate and business services by 56 thousand. On the other hand, community, social and personal services decreased by 326 thousand, from 5.6 million to 5.3 million.

Of the 29.1 million employed, there were those who were paid wages and salaries, worked on their account, or worked for the family...

  • The increase in employment was brought about by the increase in the number of wage and salary workers, own-account workers and unpaid family workers. Unpaid family workers added 878 thousand to the total employed while those engaged as own-account workers added 785 thousand. Wage and salary workers also increased by 289 thousand.

  • In terms of proportion to total employment, the wage and salary workers remained on top with a 48.9 percent share compared to a 51.3 percent share last year. Own-account workers increased its proportion to total employed by 0.2 percentage point, from 37.0 percent to 37.2 percent. Likewise, unpaid family workers increased its share by 2.2 percentage points.

The employed by region ...

  • All regions experienced growth in employment levels during the reference quarter. Southern Tagalog posted the highest increase of 377 thousand while Cordillera Administrative Region registered the least increase in employment at nine (9) thousand.

  • Ten regions showed increases in employment rates with Eastern Visayas posting the highest increase of 5.5 percentage points. Western Visayas followed next with 2.0 percentage points, Bicol and Northern Mindanao, 1.8 percentage points and Central Mindanao, 1.7 percentage points.

  • Among the regions reporting decline in employment rate, Western Mindanao registered the biggest decrease of 2.4 percentage points followed by Cagayan Valley with 1.8 percentage points, Caraga with 1.5 percentage points, CAR with 1.3 percentage points, Southern Mindanao with 1.2 percentage points and Central Visayas with 0.5 percentage point.

The employed by number of hours worked ...

  • The number of full-time workers decreased by 676 thousand from 17.8 million in April 2000 to 17.1 million this year. Its share to total employed also decreased by 6.7 percentage points from 65.3 percent to 58.6 percent.

  • Those who worked for less than 40 hours increased in levels and proportion to total employment. The estimate of 9.0 million last year (with a share of 32.9%) increased to 11.3 million (with a share of 38.7%).

Of the employed, there were those who desired more hours of work, the underemployed...

  • The number of underemployed persons was estimated at 5.1 million in April 2001. Of these, those who were working full-time or those who worked 40 hours and over totaled 1.7 million.

  • A greater proportion of underemployed persons (62.2%) were found working in the rural areas than in the urban areas (37.8%).

  • Among the underemployed rural dwellers, those who worked less than 40 hours were 1.4 million more compared to those who worked 40 hours and over a week.

And there were those who looked for work and did not find any, the unemployed...

  • Unemployment rate in April 2001 was estimated at 13.3 percent, lower by 0.6 percentage point from the estimate of 13.9 percent last year.

  • Unemployment levels, on the other hand, increased by 1.9 percent to 4.5 million in April 2001 from 4.4 million in April 2000.

  • Fourteen regions posted a double-digit unemployment rate with Metro Manila posting the highest at 17.7 percent. This was followed by Western Visayas and Central Visayas (15.5%), Eastern Visayas (13.8%), Southern Tagalog (13.3%), Ilocos Region (13.0%), Southern Mindanao (12.5%), Central Luzon and Western Mindanao (12.1%), Caraga (11.9%), Bicol (11.7%), Central Mindanao (11.1%) , CAR (10.9%) and Cagayan Valley (10.3%).

Labor Force by Year

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