2019/2020 Integrated Survey on Labor and Employment

Release Date: 20 June 2022


Table of Contents
I. Introduction
II. Data Collection
III. Methodology
IV. Concepts and Definitions of Terms
V. Dissemination of Results and Revisions
VI. Citation
VII. Contact Information

I. Introduction 

I.1. Background of the Survey

The Integrated Survey on Labor and Employment (ISLE) is a modular survey that integrates indicators related to employment, workers’ welfare and protection and labor relations. The ISLE is one of the major sources of core labor statistics as prescribed under International Labour Statistics Convention (C160) and the supplementary Labour Statistics Recommendation (R170) for ratifying countries to generate data related on employment, labor standards and labor relations.

Data generated from the ISLE are also included in the Decent Work Statistics (DeWS) – Philippines which assessed the implementation of decent work in our country. Further, the data generated on the module on occupational injuries and diseases is included in the list of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) indicators under Goal 8 (Decent Work and Economic Growth).

I.2. Objectives

The main objective of the 2019/2020 ISLE is to generate an integrated data set on employment of specific groups of workers, unionism and collective bargaining, occupational shortages and surpluses, job-related trainings of workers, occupational safety and health practices, occupational injuries and diseases, labor cost of employees, and productivity improvement program and gainsharing practices.

These data are intended to be used as inputs to studies on industry trends and practices and serve as bases for the formulation of policies on employment, conditions of work and industrial relations. To some extent, the survey results will also be used to assess the progress of decent work in the country and inputs to the Sustainable Development Goal, specifically on Goal 8 – “Promote Sustained, Inclusive and Sustainable Economic Growth, Full and Productive Employment and Decent Work for All”.

I.3. Historical Information on the Survey

Initiated in 2003, the BLES Integrated Survey (BITS), now known as Integrated Survey on Labor and Employment (ISLE) is a modular survey that integrates the data requirements on employment, industrial relations, occupational injuries and labor cost that used to be collected by the former BLES through independent surveys such as Survey on Specific Groups of Workers (SSGW), Employment, Hours and Earnings Survey (EHES), Industrial Relations at the Workplace Survey IRWS), Occupational Injuries Survey (OIS) and Labor Cost Survey (LCS). The integration aims to reduce respondent burden from filling out various survey questionnaires, to optimize the use of resources and to improve the timeliness of release of information.

Until the 2010 survey round, the BITS covered non-agricultural establishments only. Starting the 2012 round, the survey covers establishments in both agricultural and non-agricultural industries with total employment of at least 20 persons.

The EHES is a former designated statistical activity under EO 352, however, due to its integration with the other modules, its designation was cancelled and its inquiries on the employment and hours worked and job vacancies were included in the employment module of the BITS while the labor turnover portion was conducted as a separate survey as Labor Turnover Survey (LTS) because of the necessity to get quarterly data on separations and new hires of workers.

Meanwhile, the IRWS was disintegrated into different modules as Unionism and Collective Bargaining (UCB); Occupational Safety and Health Practices (OSHP) and other rider modules on industrial relations. On the other hand, the survey on Occupational injuries and Diseases (OID) and labor cost questions were added as separate modules in the then BITS.

With the approval of Republic Act 10625, otherwise known as the Philippine Statistical Act of 2013, the Bureau of Labor and Employment Statistics (BLES) was merged with the other major statistical agencies to constitute the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA). In line with the creation of the PSA, the BLES Integrated Survey (BITS) which was conducted every two (2) years by the former BLES was renamed into the now known Integrated Survey on Labor and Employment (ISLE).

Thereafter, each round of the ISLE covers different modules on the aspects of employment, labor standards and labor relations most of which also cover establishments’ practices. Over time, some rider questions with fund assistance as requested by partner agencies from the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) were also accommodated to form part of the modules of the ISLE. Specifically, this 2019/2020 ISLE covers the following modules: (1) Employment; (2) Unionism and Collective Bargaining; (3) Occupational Shortages and Surpluses; (4) Job-Related Trainings of Workers; (5) Occupational Safety and Health Practices; (6) Occupational Injuries and Diseases; (7) Labor Cost of Employees; and (8) Productivity Improvement Program and Gainsharing Practices.

Since then, the ISLE is jointly conducted with the Occupational Wages Survey (OWS) for cost-effienciency and reduce respondent’s burden in answering surveys of the PSA.  Hence, the two surveys have the same sample respondents and covered industries.

I.4. Scope and Coverage

Geographical:  The whole country.

Industrial:  Agricultural and non-agricultural industries EXCEPT central banking, public administration and defense and compulsory social security; retail sale via stalls and markets, jeepney and AUV operation; tricycle, calesas, pedicabs operations; public education services; public medical, dental and other health services; cockpits operation activities, musical band or band in operation during fiestas; activities of membership organizations; activities of households as employers of domestic personnel; undifferentiated goods-and-services-producing activities of households for own use; and activities of extra-territorial organizations and bodies.

Establishments: Agricultural and non-agricultural establishments employing 20 persons or more.

Persons: All employed persons.

II. Data Collection

II.1 Data Collection Procedure

The survey was conducted in coordination with the Regional Statistical Service Offices (RSSOs) and Provincial Statistics Offices (PSOs) of the Philippine Statistics Authority.  On a project basis, Statistical Researchers (SRs) were hired to personally deliver and collect the questionnaires from the establishments. In some instances, questionnaires were mailed/e-mailed to establishments in less accessible or conflict prone areas, in which case a self-addressed envelope was provided. Some establishments also submitted the accomplished questionnaires through fax/ e-mail.  Delivery of questionnaires started in November 2020 for the 2019/2020 ISLE and retrieval commenced within 10 working days from delivery to establishment or on a date agreed upon by the contact person and the enumerator.

Under the “new normal” condition, various schemes that will limit face-to-face engagement of the SRs and the respondents are employed during the distribution, follow-up, and collection/transmittal of questionnaires. These strategies include mail or email, phone calls/facsimile, provision of fillable or softcopy of the questionnaire.

II.2. The Instrument

The questionnaire is made up of several parts, i.e.,:

Cover page - This contains the title panel including the address label box, a brief introduction and the authority of PSA to conduct the survey and the assurance of confidentiality of data collected from the survey; contact particulars of PSA Field and Central Office for assistance, spaces for changes in the name and the location of sample establishment, spaces for head office information in case the questionnaire is endorsed to it, and control panel consisting of status codes of the establishment to be accomplished by PSA and its field personnel;

Survey Information  - This contains the survey objective, scope of the survey, uses of the data, confidentiality clause, legal authority, coverage, periodicity and reference period, concepts and definition of terms, due date for accomplishing the form and availability of results of the 2019/2020 ISLE.

Part 1: General Information - inquires on the main economic activity or business of the establishment; major products/goods produced or sold, or type of service rendered; legal organization (LO) of the establishment; economic organization (EO) of the establishment; and registered name and address of main office.

Part 2: Employment - requires data on total employment and its breakdown into classification of workers: working owners, unpaid workers and paid employees which include managers/executives, supervisors/foremen, and regular and non-regular rank and file workers. It also gathers data on employment of various specific age group such as young and older workers, persons with disabilities, workers paid the exact minimum wage, time-rated workers, commission workers, output-rated workers; workers who work on evening/graveyard shifts and workers under alternative work arrangements. The number of workers hired through agencies/contractors and the types of processes outsourced/contracted-out are also being asked in this part of the questionnaire. Corresponding count of female employment for some items of inquiry are also required under total employment and employment of specific groups of workers.

Part 3: Unionism and Collective Bargaining - focuses on the extent of unionism and collective bargaining in establishments as of June 30, 2020. Specifically, the section on unionism inquires on the existence and coverage of registered unions; scope of bargaining unit whether composing of supervisors or rank-and-file employees; number of union members by sex; and number of union officers by sex. For collective bargaining, queries involve existence and coverage of Collective Bargaining Agreements (CBAs) by scope of bargaining unit; and workers covered by CBAs classified by sex including non-union members paying agency fees. Information on the existence of an operating Labor Management Scheme/Committee/Council (LMC) in the establishments is likewise included as the last portion in this module.

Part 4: Occupational Shortages and Surpluses - inquires about job vacancies in the establishments during the reference period. For each specific job title/occupation, it gathers information on the type and status of vacant position, number of vacancies and applicants, hard or easy to fill occupations, length of recruitment period, reason why occupations are hard to fill, skills requirement in filling-up of vacancies, required length of experience, mode in sourcing job applicants, and newly created and emerging occupations.

Part 5: Job-related Training of Workers - inquires on the provision of job-related trainings by the establishments to their employees, number of employees provided job related trainings, training costs and training providers (e.g., government training institutions, private training institutions, in-house trainings or other establishments, etc.).

Part 6: Occupational Safety and Health Practices - gathers information on the (1) prevention and control measures/activities against work safety and health conducted by establishments; (2) occupational safety and health policies/programs implemented in establishments; (3) occupational safety and health-related trainings/seminars availed by employees in establishments; (4) top three (3) training agencies/organizations that conduct safety and health-related trainings/seminars to employees in establishments; and (5) designated health and safety personnel in establishments.

Part 7: Occupational Injuries and Diseases - generally inquires on the occurrence of occupational accidents, injuries and diseases in establishments. The data generated from the OID measures the safety performance of the country which is computed using frequency rates (SDG Indicator), incidence rates and severity rates. Specifically, the OID covers cases of occupational injuries and incapacity for work of injured persons; workdays lost of cases of occupational injuries; occupational diseases and commuting accidents.

Part 8: Labor Cost of Employees - inquires on the different labor costs incurred by employers in engaging the services of workers in carrying out their business operations. Consistent with the ILO definition of labor cost, the LCE generates statistics on the current structure of labor costs in the country. Specifically, the module focuses on the direct costs and indirect costs paid to employees by major industry group. Direct cost components include direct wages and salaries; bonuses and gratuities; remuneration for time not worked by employees; payments in kind; and housing shouldered by employers. Indirect costs, on the other hand, cover social security expenditures; cost of trainings; cost of welfare services; and other labor costs.

Part 9: Productivity Improvement Program and Gainsharing Practices (PIPGP) - gathers data on the following: (1) characteristics of Productivity Improvement Programs (PIPs) developed and implemented in establishments; (2) objective/s of the PIP/s and status of attainment of these objectives; (3) number of managers, supervisors and rank and file employees covered by PIP/s; (4) reason/s for the non-attainment of PIP objectives; (5) type/s of gainsharing schemes/practices included in the PIP/s and types of forms the incentives were given; (6) number of managers, supervisors and rank and file employees who benefitted from the incentives under the gainsharing schemes/practices; (7) number of establishments that avail of tax incentives for PIPs implemented; (8) government agencies that assisted establishments in the development and implementation of PIPs; (9) number of establishments who attended RTWPB training programs; (10) number of establishments that implemented PIPs as a result of attending RTWPB training programs; (11) frequency of visits/monitoring done by the RTWPBs to establishments in relation to the implementation of the PIPs; and (12) other types of technical assistance establishments’ need from the RTWPBs to improve productivity and performance of the establishments.  Additional information on the COVID-19 recovery measures of establishments were also included.

Part X: Certification - includes the respondents to certify on the accuracy of data provided in the questionnaire as given by the contact person with his/her signature over printed name, position, telephone number, fax number and e-mail address. The time spent by the establishment in answering the questionnaire is also asked in this part to measure respondent’s burden in accomplishing the form and appropriate spaces are also provided to elicit comments/suggestions.

Part XI: Survey Personnel - this portion is allocated for the names of personnel: the SR writes/signs his/her name and the date when the questionnaire was collected regardless of status and or field edited. The Field Supervisor writes/signs his/her name and date of signing once the questionnaire has been reviewed and manually processed (coded, edited, checked for completeness and consistency). The Machine Processor and Reviewer to do likewise after all the data in the questionnaire has already been encoded/reviewed. The Assessment officer, if any, needs also to write/sign his/her name and the date of signing once all the required processes in the questionnaire have already been completed.

II.3. Data Items

  • Categories of employment and employees
  • Establishment with union and with CBA, union membership and CBA coverage
  • Occupational shortages and surpluses
  • Job-related training of workers
  • Establishment practices on occupational safety and health
  • Cases of occupational injuries (by type, part of body injured, cause, agent, major occupation group), frequency and incidence rates of cases of occupational injuries with lost workdays, severity rates and average days lost of cases of occupational injuries resulting to temporary incapacity
  • Cases of occupational diseases by type of disease
  • Commuting accidents and workers injured
  • Labor cost components
  • Establishment practices on productivity improvement program and gainsharing practices and COVID-19 recovery measures

III. Methodology

III.1. Sampling Frame

III.1.1. Statistical unit

The statistical unit is the establishment.  Each unit is classified to an industry that reflects its main economic activity which the activity that contributes the biggest or major portion of the gross income or revenues of the establishment.

III.1.2. Survey universe

The frame used for the 2019/2020 ISLE was extracted from the 2019 updated List of Establishments (LE) as of 30 July 2020. This frame was used to draw the sample establishments for the surveys.

The List of Establishments (LE) is the list of all operating establishments nationwide which is the main source of statistical frame for all establishment-based and enterprise-based surveys/censuses conducted by the PSA. The geographic location, industry classification and total employment of the establishments are the primary variables being considered and used in the sampling design of these surveys/censuses.

The updates for the latest 2019 LE were sourced from survey feedbacks from the 2019 Quarterly Survey of Philippine Business and Industry (QSPBI); the 2018 Census of Philippine Business and Industry (CPBI); and from the list of branches enumerated by sample establishments.

The 2019 LE was extracted from the Statistical Business Register (SBR) which is a database containing the records of business units engaged in various economic activities in the entire country. It is a collection of all business units enumerated/listed and included in the list from previous updating activities which are currently operating or with “other operation” status (i.e. closed, cannot be located (CBL) or moved out to unknown address, duplicates, etc.).
In accordance with the specified scope and coverage (Table 2.2) provided to the Service and Industry Census Division (SICD), the final frame for the 2019/2020 ISLE consists of about 40,934 in operation and formal sector establishments nationwide.

III.1.3. Sampling design

The suvey uses stratified systematic sampling design with 2- digit, 3-digit, 4-digit and 5-digit PSIC serving as industry strata and total employment as the second stratification variable.

Stratified systematic sampling is a process of dividing the population into homogeneous groups, called strata, and then selecting independent samples in each stratum systematically. Systematic sampling controls the distribution of the sample by spreading the selections throughout the sampling frame (or stratum) at equal intervals and thus provides implicit stratification. This method ensures that all important subgroups of the population are represented in the sample and increases the precision of “overall” survey estimates.

The design includes determination of sampling units; sampling domains; determination of sample size; sample allocation and sample selection.

Geographical location was not considered in the stratification to allow for detailed industry groupings.

III.1.4. Sampling domains

Industry Domains - The industry domains (referred as industry strata) for the 2019/2020 ISLE are the 2-digit level (division), 3-digit (group), 4-digit (class) and 5-digit level (sub-class) of the 2009 PSIC. A total of seventy-one (71) industries were considered as domains.

Employment Stratum - Within the industry domains for each sector, the establishments were further stratified by total employment (TE). The TE sizes were either combined or taken as a group to comprise the employment stratum and were limited to only three (3) employment strata.

This employment size grouping is based on the National Statistics Office and Small and Medium Enterprise Development Council Resolution No. 1, Series 2003 adopting the definition according to employment size, where 1-9 employees are classified as micro, 10-99 as small, 100-199 as medium and the 200 or more employees as large establishments. Since the threshold in employment for the 2019/2020 ISLE is 20 workers, it adopted the “small” category starting with 20 workers, then up to 99, and so on. This grouping was also considered in computing the adjusted weights of the 2019/2020 ISLE.

III.2. Sample Selection Procedure

III.2.1. Sample size determination

The primary consideration in the determination of sample size for the surveys was its manageability at the optimum level of estimated budget without compromising the reliability and accuracy of survey results.

For the 2019/2020 ISLE round, due to limited budget resources, the sample size was pegged at 8,600 sample establishments.  One (1) employment stratum shall be taken with certainty while two (2) of the employment size groups shall be included in the non-certainty strata.

A certainty stratum is defined as the stratum whose sampling ratio is 100 percent. In this stratum, all establishments are taken as certainty samples, i.e., the selection probability is 1 and the sampling weight is 1 while non-certainty stratum is the stratum where only sample establishments are taken.

Certainty stratum based on employment size - Establishments employing 200 or more workers were taken with certainty as their employment represents about 65 percent of total employment in all the establishments covered. These establishments, however, comprise only 10 percent of the reference establishment population. For this survey round, all establishments with 200 or more workers were automatically included in the survey. Hence, establishments with employment size of 20-199 were considered in non-certainty stratum.

Certainty stratum based on industry - There are two (2) cases where industry strata are considered in the certainty stratum:

(1) Some industry strata that were pre-determined as certainty units due to few numbers of establishments existing in the whole population. This is to ensure that all of these industry strata will still have reliable estimates in anticipation of unit non-response;

(2) Based on the computation of sample size for 20-99 and 100-199 employment size groups, denoted as n20-99 and n100-199 (see detailed discussion below). Some industries that have high coefficient of variation (CV) from the previous survey yielded a higher number of samples than the establishment population in the frame. Consequently, these industry strata were automatically considered as certainty units.

Accordingly, a total of 5,331 sample establishments were considered as certainty units.

Initial sample size determination. Prior to the industry domain that was identified as certainty, the initial sample size for employment strata 20-99 and 100-199 were computed by taking into account the computed highest Coefficient of Variation (CV) between the average wage rates of the two (2) benchmark occupations, i.e., Accounting and Bookkeeping Clerks and Unskilled Workers from the previous survey round of OWS; the responding units from previous survey; and a target coefficient of variation (CV’) of 8%.

An additional 10% for each industry domain was applied to accommodate the expected non-response. Further adjustments were made in the sample size for some industry domains based on the available population from the frame. As a result, these industries have been considered in the certainty stratum as mentioned above.

However, due to budget constraints, the initial sample size determined for 20-99 employment size stratum based on CV was not adopted since it required a bigger number of samples. The certainty stratum, i.e., 200 and over employment size group (4,684 establishments) and the initial sample size computation based on CV for the employment stratum 100-199 (2,292 establishments) were then subtracted to the budgeted sample size (8,600). Then, the remainder (1,624 establishments) was distributed to employment size 1 (20-99) using Kish allocation. Based on the available units in the frame, some adjustments in the sample size for the 20-99 group were made. Hence, the final sample size for 20-99 stratum is 1,597. A sampling rate of approximately 50% were allotted to size 2 (100- 199 employment size group), and approximately 5% to size 1 (20-99 employment size group). For 20-99 employment size stratum, seven (7) industry domains were taken as certainty after the reduced sample size determination was applied. While 34 industry domains were taken as certainty for 100-199 stratum. Samples were then selected for the remaining 64 and 37 industry groups in the non-certainty strata (size 1 and size 2, respectively).

Thus, the total number of samples for the 2019/2020 ISLE and 2019/2020 ISLE is 8,573.

III.2.2. Sample selection

For each of the sampling strata of TE of 20-199, sample establishments are selected using systematic sampling. The IBM SPSS statistical software was utilized in choosing the samples and in the computation of initial sampling weight. Weights are assigned to respondent records in a survey data in order to make the weighted records represent the population of inference as close as possible.

Systematic sampling was chosen so that the TE values of the sample establishments are spread out, resulting from good representation of samples within the employment stratum, thus avoiding all sample establishments with low TE values or high TE values.


III.3. Estimation Procedure

Weighting Adjustment for Non-Certainty Stratum Non-Response

Not all of the distributed survey questionnaires will be retrieved or will have a status of “Good” questionnaire. During data collection, there will be reports of permanent closures; non-location; duplicates and shifts in industry and employment size outside the survey coverage. Establishments that fall in these categories are not eligible elements of the frame and their count will not be considered in the estimation. Non-responding eligible units are made up of refusals; temporary closures; under new management and ownership; consolidated report with other sample establishments; and establishments whose questionnaires contain inconsistent responses but were not able to reply or comply to the verification/follow-ups made by SRs and field personnel by the time output table generation processes had commenced.

Respondents are post-stratified as to industry and employment size classifications. Non-respondents are retained in their classifications. Estimates are obtained by simple expansion, i.e., by multiplying the sample values at the cell level (industry and employment size) by the corresponding blowing-up factor or the adjusted weights which is the ratio of the estimated population of establishments to the number of responding establishments. The formula used is as follows:

These estimates are then aggregated to the desired totals.

A 95% level of reliability of national survey estimates is desired. It is to be assessed through the coefficients of variations (CVs) for the average wage rates of benchmark occupations and other monitored occupations by industry.

III.4. Other Related Topics

III.4.1.  Adjustments

  • Non-response: Non-response is taken into account in the weighing procedure.
  • Other bias: No adjustments are made.
  • Use of benchmark data: No benchmark data is used.
  • Use of other surveys: No other survey data are used.
  • Seasonal variations: Not applicable.

III.4.2. Indicators of the Reliability of the Estimates

  • Coverage of the sampling frame: Partially updated.
  • Sampling error/Sampling variance: Computed for key variables.
  • Response rate: For 2019/2020 ISLE, the response rates in terms of eligible units are 78.8 percent (for unionism; employment; and occupational shortages and surpluses), 72.3 percent (for training of workers; productivity and gainsharing practices; occupational safety and health practices; and occupational injuries and diseases) and 51.5 percent for the labor cost of employees.
  • Non-sampling errors: These may occur due to inaccuracies in reporting by establishments and enumerators, mistakes in coding, editing and data entry.  However, efforts are made to reduce non-sampling errors by careful design of the questionnaire, intensive training of survey personnel, linkages with key informants (employers’ and workers’ groups, government agencies and the academe) and through adoption and documentation of efficient operating procedures.
  • Conformity with other sources: The survey results are checked for consistency with the results of previous ISLE data or related administrative data.
  • Estimates for non-survey years: Not relevant

IV. Concepts and Definitions of Terms

Establishment - an economic unit, which engages under a single ownership or control, i.e. under a single legal entity, in one or predominantly one kind of economic activity at a single fixed physical location.

Total Employment refers to the total number of persons whether paid or unpaid, who work in or for this establishment


  • working owners with or without regular pay;
  • salaried directors, managers and executives;
  • regular and non-regular workers, e.g., probationary, casual, contractual/project-based, seasonal, paid apprentices/learners;
  • workers on paid vacation, sick, maternity, paternity, service incentive leave and other paid leaves;
  • persons working away from the establishment but paid by and under its control, e.g., bus drivers; and
  • workers on strike/lockout; unpaid workers without regular pay who work for at least 1/3 of the working time normal to the establishment.


  • silent or inactive partners;
  • members of the board of directors paid solely for attendance at meetings;
  • consultants, persons on retainer basis, contract out/agency-hired workers, homeworkers;
  • workers on indefinite leave, laid-off workers for six (6) months or more; workers paid purely on commission without employer control; and
  • students under on-the-job training (OJT).

Working owners refer to owners who are already engaged in the management of the establishment but do not receive regular pay.

Unpaid workers refer to workers without regular pay who work for at least one-third of the working time normal to the establishment.

Paid Employees refer to workers who work as full-time and part-time employees working in or for the establishment and receiving regular pay, as well as those working away from this establishment and paid by and under the control of this establishment. This includes managers/executives, supervisors/foremen, rank and file and working owners receiving regular pay.

Managers/Executives refer to workers whose main responsibilities are to determine and formulate policies and plan, direct, control and coordinate the activities of enterprises and organizations, or their internal departments or sections. Working owners receiving regular pay are included.

Supervisors/Foremen refer to workers whose main responsibilities are to plan, direct, organize and supervise the daily activities of workers in the section or unit concerned with the production of goods or the provision of services, subject to the general directive of managers.

Rank and file workers refer to workers who do not fall within the managerial or supervisory classification of employees.

Regular workers refer to workers hired to perform activities which are usually necessary or desirable in the usual business or trade of the employer and usually worked on permanent status.

Non-regular workers refer to workers who worked on temporary status for a particular project or specific period of time; classified into probationary, casual, contractual, seasonal or apprentices/learners.

Young workers refer to workers aged 15 to 24 years old (UN definition), or 15-30 years old (Philippine definition) as of reference date.

Older workers refer to workers aged 50 to 65 years old as of reference date.

Persons with Disabilities (PWDs) refer to workers who have physical, mental or sensory impairments which may hinder their full and effective participation in the workplace on an equal basis with others.

Workers paid the exact minimum wage refer to workers who are paid the applicable minimum wage rates fixed by the Regional Tripartite Wages and Productivity Boards.

Time-rated workers refer to workers paid on the basis of a time unit of work such as an hour, a day or a month.

Full-time workers refer to workers paid on the basis of a time unit of work and who work at jobs with hours of work equal to or more than those considered as normal to the establishment.

Part-time workers refer to workers who work at jobs which provide less than the working time normal to the establishment.

With basic pay and commission refers to persons working for the establishment who receive a basic pay plus a certain percentage of money received for a transaction. They are on the regular payroll of the establishment and are included in its total employment (e.g., sales representatives).

Purely paid on commission with employer control and supervision refers to persons working for the establishment who are paid purely on the basis of a certain percentage of money received for a transaction. They are under employer control and supervision and are on the regular payroll of the establishment, and are included in its total employment.

Purely paid on commission w/o employer control and supervision refers to persons working for the establishment who are paid purely on the basis of a certain percentage of money received for a transaction. They are outside employer control and supervision and are not on the regular payroll of the establishment, and are excluded in its total employment (e.g., insurance underwriters).

Output-rated workers refer to workers whose pay is in relation to their output, i.e., piece-rate, quota, “pakyao” or “takay”, or task.

Piece-rated workers refer to workers who are paid on the basis of the number of units produced rather than the time spent in production. Production standard (quota), “pakyao” or “takay”, task, commission workers and homeworkers are excluded.

Production standard (quota) workers refer to workers whose performance is measured based on an imposed minimum amount or quantity of production for a given period, usually eight (8) hours. Piece-rated, “pakyao” or “takay”, task, commission workers and homeworkers are excluded.

“Pakyao”or “Takay” workers refer to workers whose job or work to be performed is in bulk or volumes which are difficult to quantify (commonly practiced in the agricultural industry).  Piece-rated, production standard (quota), task, commission workers and homeworkers are excluded.

Task workers refer to workers who are paid for performing specific work irrespective of the time consumed. Piece-rated, production standard (quota), “pakyao” or “takay”, commission workers and homeworkers are excluded.

Probationary workers refer to workers on trial period during which the employer determines their fitness to qualify for regular employment, based on reasonable standards made known to them at the time of engagement.

Casual workers refer to workers on a very short term or on an occasional and intermittent basis, often for a specific number of hours, days or weeks, in return for a wage set by the terms of the daily or periodic work agreement.

Contractual/Project-based workers refer to workers whose employment has been fixed for a specific project or undertaking, the completion or termination of which has been determined at the time of engagement.

Seasonal workers refer to workers whose employment, specifically its timing and duration, is significantly influenced by seasonal factors.

Apprentices/Learners refer to workers covered by TESDA apprenticeship/learnership programs who are paid at least 75% of the minimum wage.

Workers who work on evening/graveyard shifts refer to workers who work on shifts that wholly or partly cover the 10:00 P.M. to 6:00 A.M. window. EXCLUDE agency-hired workers.

Telecommuting refers to a work from an alternative workplace with the use of telecommunication and/or computer technologies as stated in the Republic Act No. 11165 otherwise known as Telecommuting Act also referred to as Work from Home Law.

Skeleton workforce refers to “the operational capacity which utilizes the smallest number of people needed for a business or organization to maintain its basic functions.”

Other alternative work schemes refer to any other work arrangements which may be temporary in nature such as reduction of normal workdays, job rotation, etc.

Outsourcing/Contracting out refer to an arrangement whereby a principal agrees to put out or farm out with a contractor the performance or completion of a specific job, work or service within a definite or predetermined period, regardless of whether such job, work or service is to be performed or completed within or outside the premises of the principal.

Workers hired through agencies/contractors refer to workers employed by the contractors to perform or complete a job, work or service pursuant to a service agreement within the premises of the establishment. They are excluded from the total employment of the establishment.



Union - any registered group or association of employees that exists in whole or in part for the purpose of collective bargaining or dealing with employers concerning terms and conditions of employment. It also refers to a union whose registration is still in process as of reference date.

Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA) - the negotiated contract between a legitimate labor organization and the employer concerning wages, hours of work, and all other terms and conditions of employment in a bargaining unit, including mandatory provisions for grievance and arbitration machinery.

Bargaining Unit - a group of employees sharing mutual interest within a given employer, comprise of all or less than all of the entire body of employees in the employer unit or any specific occupational of geographical grouping with such employer unit. According to law a bargaining unit or scope of bargaining unit can be the following:

  • Rank and File Employee - an employee whose functions are neither managerial nor supervisory in nature.
  • Supervisory Employee - an employee who, in the interest of the employer, effectively recommends managerial actions and the exercise of such authority is not merely routinary or clerical but requires the use of independent judgement.

Note: Managerial employees are NOT eligible to join, assist or form any labor organization (Article 245, Labor Code).

Labor Management Scheme/Committee/Council (LMC) – the operating mechanism of labor management (LMC) program in an organized (with union) and unorganized establishment (without union). The LMC enables workers to participate in policy and decision-making processes in the establishment insofar as said processes will directly affect their rights, benefits and welfare. Further, LMC aims to foster better relations between labor and management to supplement the grievance process when necessary and to supplement the CBA.



Job Vacancies refer to unfilled job openings which are immediately available for placement and for which active recruitment steps are being undertaken anytime during the reference period.

EXCLUDE: Vacancies with the following conditions: a) positions not paid through the establishment’s payroll; b) ONLY available to be filled by internal applicants; c) work to be carried out by contractors; and d) to be filled by staff from contract labor agencies.

Entry-level Jobs refers to starting positions that require little or no experience. Otherwise, the job is classified as junior, senior or executive level position.

Hard-to-Fill Vacancies refer to those job vacancies for which an establishment has encountered difficulties in recruitment, otherwise, they are considered easy-to-fill vacancies.

Hard Skills refer to capabilities that are job or occupation specific (e.g. computer programming, welding skills, carpentry skills, etc.).

Soft Skills refer to a broad set of skills, competencies behaviors, attitudes, and personal qualities that enable people to effectively navigate their environment, work well with others, perform well, and achieve their goals (e.g. flexibility/adaptability, effective communication skills, problem solving, etc.).

Public Employment Service Office (PESO) is a non-fee charging multi-employment service facility or entity established or accredited pursuant to Republic Act No. 8759 otherwise known as the PESO Act of 1999. The PESO responds to a full range of employment services. This includes provision of career guidance and employment coaching, labour market information and analysis and employment facilitation services. Its main objective is to ensure the prompt, timely and efficient delivery of employment service and provision of information on the other DOLE programs.

Job Portal – also known as a career portal, is a modern name for an online job board that helps applicants find jobs and aids employers in their quest to locate ideal candidates. It is a web site where employers can post job offers, and where people looking for employment can post their skills.

Phil-JobNet - is an internet-based job and applicant matching system which aims to advance jobseekers search for jobs and employers search for manpower.

JobStreet - features a job matching engine and a job posting platform and provides other online recruitment products and services such as online recruitment, outsourced human capital service, software as a service, e-commerce and e-business and jobseekers services.

Kalibrr - is a recruiting platform that uses assessments to drive faster hiring decisions. A technology company that transforms the way candidates find jobs and companies hire talent.

JobsDB - provide a cost-effective recruitment platform for employees and fastest jobseekers to pair the most suitable talents with job vacancies.

New/emerging occupations refer as occupation/position titles that brought by the changes in technology, market or regulations and that is not classified in the 2012 Philippine Standard Occupational Classification (PSOC).



Job-related trainings - trainings to employees to acquire knowledge or new skills for a current job or a future job conducted by the establishment and by other institutions. General orientations, team buildings and similar activities are excluded.

Training cost - cost incurred by the establishment in providing employees with job-related trainings either in-house or by other institutions (e.g., professional fees, supplies and materials, etc.).



Basic Occupational Safety and Health Training (BOSH) - one of the mandatory 40-hour training courses required for Safety Officers under Rule 1030 of the Occupational Safety and Health Standards (OSHS). It aims to equip participants with the basic knowledge and skills on identifying safety, health and environmental hazards; determining appropriate control measures; and developing and implementing OSH policies and programs.

Construction Safety and Health Training (COSH) - one of the mandatory 40-hour training courses required for Safety Officers working in the construction industry under Rule 1030 of the Occupational Safety and Health Standards (OSHS) and the DOLE Department Order No. 13, s. 1998: Guidelines Governing Safety and Health in the Construction Industry. This training aims to equip participants with the basic knowledge and skills in performing safety audits, assessments and analysis of hazards and risks in the construction industry; determining appropriate control measures; and developing and implementing OSH policies and programs.

Chemical Safety Training - is a training designed to provide participants with knowledge on the various aspects of managing and promoting chemical safety and develop their capability in implementing solution-oriented approaches on the safe use of chemicals. Discussions focus on: the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals; storage and handling,
health effects of chemicals; fire and explosion; waste management; operational control; emergency procedures; and management of chemical control program.

Ergonomics Training - is a course that aims to enable participants to assess ergonomic risk factors in the workplace and to apply basic ergonomic principles to manage identified risks and prevent occupational injuries.

Personal Protective Equipment - refers to a specialized clothing or equipment designed to protect workers against safety and health hazards that may cause serious workplace injuries and illnesses. i.e. goggles, helmet, masks, safety gloves, safety shoes, earmuffs, etc.

Risk-Based Programs - OSH programs that will reduce the risk of accident, injury or illness due to exposure to specific hazards.

Safety Officer - refers to any employee/worker trained and tasked to implement occupational safety and health programs in the workplace in accordance with the provisions of the OSHS.

Safety Officer 1 (SO1) - refers to an employee who has completed the mandatory eight (8)-hour OSH orientation course as prescribed in the OSH Standards and two (2)-hour trainers' training.

Safety Officer 2 (SO2) - refers to an employee who has completed the mandatory forty (40)-hour OSH training course applicable to the industry as prescribed in the OSH Standards.

Safety Officer 3 (SO3) - refers to an employee who has completed the mandatory forty (40)-hour OSH training course applicable to the industry, additional forty-eight (48) hours of advanced/specialized occupational safety training course relevant to the industry, relevant experience in OSH for at least two (2) years, and other requirements as prescribed in the OSH Standards. Qualified SO3 shall be eligible for certification as OSH practitioner.

Safety Officer 4 (SO4) - refers to an employee who has completed the mandatory forty (40)-hour OSH training course applicable to the industry, additional eighty (80) hours of advanced/specialized occupational safety training course relevant to the industry, an aggregate of three hundred twenty (320) hours of OSH related training or experience, an actual experience as SO3 for at least four (4) years, and other requirements as prescribed by the OSH standards. Additional training may be converted to years of experience where eighty (80) hours of training may equal to one (1) year of experience and vice versa. Qualified SO4 shall be eligible for certification as OSH consultant.



Occupational accident - an unexpected and unplanned occurrence, including acts of violence arising out of or in connection with work which results in one or more workers incurring a personal injury, disease or death. It can occur outside the usual workplace/premises of the establishment while the worker is on business on behalf of his/her employer i.e., in another establishment or while on travel, transport or in road traffic.

Occupational injury - an injury which results from a work-related event or a single instantaneous exposure in the work environment (occupational accident). Where more than one person is injured in a single accident, each case of occupational injury should be counted separately. If one person is injured in more than one occupational accident during the reference period, each case of injury to that person should be counted separately. Recurrent absences due to an injury resulting from a single occupational accident should be treated as the continuation of the same case of occupational injury not as a new case.

Case/s – refers to a person/s injured (or persons injured) brought by an accident related to work.

Incapacity for work – refers to inability of the victim due to an occupational injury to perform the normal duties of work in the job or position occupied at the time of the occupational accident.

Fatal case - case where a person is fatally injured as a result of occupational accident whether death occurs immediately after the accident or within the same reference year as the accident.

Permanent incapacity - case where an injured person was absent from work for at least one day, excluding the day of the accident, and 1) was never able to perform again the normal duties of the job or position occupied at the time of the occupational accident, or 2) will be able to perform the same job but his/her total absence from work is expected to exceed a year starting the day after the accident.

Temporary incapacity - case where an injured person was absent from work for at least one day, excluding the day of the accident, and 1) was able to perform again the normal duties of the job or position occupied at the time of the occupational accident; or 2) will be able to perform the same job but his/her total absence from work is expected not to exceed a year starting the day after the accident; or 3) did not return to the same job but the reason for changing the job is not related to his/her inability to perform the job at the time of the occupational accident.

Case without workdays lost - case where the injured person required only first aid or medical treatment on the day of the accident and was able to perform again, on the day after the accident, the normal duties of the job or position occupied at the time of the occupational accident.

Workdays lost - refer to working days (consecutive or staggered) an injured person was absent from work, starting the day after the accident. If the person is still absent from work by the end of the reference year, his/her workdays lost cover the period from the day after the accident up to the end of the reference year. Temporary absences from work of less than one day for medical treatment are NOT included in workdays lost.

Frequency rates - indicate the number of cases of occupational injury with workdays lost occurred in the establishment with regards to the amount of time for the period wherein workers were exposed to the risk of engaging to occupational accident. It is calculated as cases of occupational injuries with workdays lost, including fatalities per 1,000,000 employee-hours of exposure.

Incidence rates - indicate the number of new cases of occupational injury with workdays lost in relation to the total number of persons employed who are exposed to work-related risks during the reference period. It is computed as cases of occupational injuries with workdays lost per 1,000 workers.

Severity rates - determines the seriousness of an occupational injury by measuring the amount of time lost in proportion to the hours actually worked. It is an effective indicator to formulate preventive mechanisms and relevant policies against work injuries. Severity Rates are derived as workdays lost of cases of occupational injuries resulting to temporary incapacity per 1,000,000 employee-hours of exposure.

Average workdays lost - measures the days lost or absences of which the worker is temporarily incapacitated to ascertain the severity of the work-related injury. It is computed as workdays lost for every case of occupational injury resulting to temporary incapacity.

Occupational disease - an abnormal condition or disorder aside from one resulting from an occupational injury caused by exposure over a period of time to risk factors associated with work activity such as contact with certain chemicals, inhaling coal dust, carrying out repetitive movements. This refers to a new case recognized, diagnosed and recorded during the year.

Commuting accident - an accident which results to death or personal injury occurring on the habitual route of a worker, in either direction, between the place of work or work-related training and the worker’s principal or secondary residence, the place where the worker usually takes his/her meals or the place where he/she usually receives his/her remuneration.

Hours actually worked - include normal or regular hours of work; overtime; time spent at work such as the preparation of workplace, repairs, maintenance, preparation and cleaning of tools, preparation of receipts, time sheets and reports; time spent at the place of work waiting or standing by for reasons such as lack supply of work, breakdown of machinery or accident, or time during which no work is done but for which payment is made, and; time corresponding to lunch/meal breaks of less than one hour and to short rest periods at the workplace including tea and coffee breaks/meriendas.



Labor cost - cost incurred by the employer in the employment of labor in a specified reference period. The statistical concept of labor cost comprises remuneration for work performed, payments in respect of time paid for but not worked, bonuses and gratuities, the cost of food, drink and other payments in kind, cost of workers’ housing borne by employers, employers’ social security expenditures, cost to the employer for vocational training, welfare services and miscellaneous items, such as transport of workers, work clothes and recruitment, together with taxes regarded as labor cost.

Direct wages and salaries - payments by employer to employees before any deductions is made in respect of taxes, contributions of employees to social security and pension schemes, life insurance premiums, union dues and other obligations of employees. These exclude payments/overhead costs which are reimbursements to employees for travel, entertainment, meals and other expenses incurred in conducting the business of the employer.

Remuneration for time not worked - payments for vacation leave, sick leave, maternity leave, paternity leave, service incentive leave, union/emergency leave, bereavement/burial leaves and other paid leaves.

Payments in kind - goods and services valued at producer’s or wholesale prices given to workers as part of their remuneration. These exclude general amenities provided by the employer such as imputed rental value of free/subsidized housing, medical services and canteen and other welfare services and facilities.

Cost for establishment-owned dwellings - net cost, i.e., maintenance expenditures, fees, property taxes, insurance, interest, depreciation and other costs -- less grants-in aid, tax rebates, subsidies, etc., received from government and other institutions in respect of employee housing. Excluded are capital investment on building, equipment or land made during the year and labor cost of personnel employed by the establishment for maintenance and other works that are related to establishment-owned houses.

Cost of medical care and health services - medical care and health expenses (except insurance), e.g., medicines, incurred by the employer on behalf of the employees. It excludes cost of establishment-owned medical care and health facility and equipment for employees.

Cost of training - net cost of fees, salaries and other payments for services of outside instructors, payments made to outside training institutions on behalf of the workers in the establishment and the reimbursement of school fees to workers. It excludes cost of establishment-owned training facility and equipment for employees.

Cost of welfare services - grants to credit unions and related services for employees, cost of services such as canteens and other food services, educational, cultural, recreational and related facilities and services (See definition of cost for establishment-owned dwellings).

Total cost - all expenses incurred by the establishment whether paid or payable, valued at market price. Aside from labor cost, these are costs of:

  • purchased materials, supplies, fuel and electricity
  • industrial and non-industrial services done by others
  • costs of good for resale
  • interest expenses; and
  • indirect taxes

Donations and contributions, bad debts, income taxes, losses, depreciation are excluded under Total cost.



Productivity Improvement Program - workplace programs aimed at improving worker and/or enterprise productivity.

7S of Good Housekeeping - refers to a training program on waste elimination through workplace organization. 7S means sort, set in order, shine, standardize, sustain, safety and spirit.

Client Satisfaction Measurement (CSM) - refers to the assessment of performance from the customer's point of view.

Total Quality Management (TQM) - management philosophy that seeks to integrate all organizational objectives.

Lean Management - refers to a productivity program on doing more with less, i.e., less time, inventory, space, labor and money.

Suggestion/Feedback Scheme - formal mechanism which encourages employees to contribute constructive ideas for improving their organization.

Six Sigma - refers to a program aimed at the near elimination of defects from every product, process and transaction.

Just-in-Time - refers to a production technology system which promotes economic efficiency, with a central principle of “produce appropriately what is necessary, just as much as needed, when needed”.

Continuous Process Improvement - act of implementing improvements to a product, service or process.

Gainsharing - refers to a group incentive or bonus system that shares improved performance with most or all employees of a unit and thus motivates higher employee involvement.

Profit Sharing - refers to a definite arrangement under which workers regularly receive, in addition to their wages and salaries, a share on some pre-determined basis, in the profits of the undertaking, the sum allocated to workers varying with the level of profits.

Employee Stock/s Option Plan - refers to a form of equity compensation granted by companies to their employees and executive. An ESO gives the holder the right to purchase the underlying asset – the company’s stock – at a specified price for a finite period of time.

Usual Form - refers to the common form of non-cash incentives (gift certificate, electronic gadget, home appliances, etc.) given by the establishment to workers.

Productivity 101 - refers to a training program of the basic orientation on productivity concepts, measures, tools and techniques.

ISTIV-PAP (Productivity Awareness Program) - refers to training program of a values driven human resource intervention for quality and productivity improvement rooted in the five ideal attributes of a productive individual.

ISTIV-Bayanihan - refers to a training program and networking intervention for Barangay Micro Business enterprises that supports the growth of micro enterprises by enhancing the entrepreneurs’ way of managing the enterprises.

DOLE Integrated Livelihood and Emergency Employment Program (DILEEP) - refers to the program seeks to contribute to poverty reduction and reduce the vulnerability to risks of the working poor, vulnerable and marginalized workers either through emergency employment, and promotion of entrepreneurship and community enterprises. It composed of Kabuhayan or DOLE Integrated Livelihood Program (DILP); and Tulong Panghanapbuhay sa Ating Disadvantaged/Displaced Workers (TUPAD) or Emergency Employment Program.

ISTIV Plus-SIB (Succeeding in Business) - refers to a training program combining productivity values and techniques using knowledge dialogue mechanism between labor and management.

Green ME (My Enterprise) - refers to a training program for sustainable growth and environment protection that recognizes the workforce as the driver of change in the enterprise.

Service Quality - refers to a training program which is quality management intervention which makes used to prescribed tools and techniques in developing creative solutions to reduce errors in service.

Retail Service: Merchandising and Visual Merchandising - refers to a training program of the fundamentals of merchandising, marketing of the product, at the right price, in the right quantity, in the right place, at the right time. Visual Merchandising includes all aspects of the total visual impact of the store and its merchandise.

Social Media Marketing - refers to a training program that makes used of social media platforms and websites to promote a product or service.


V. Dissemination of Results and Revisions

V.1. Schedule of Release

For 2019/2020 ISLE, the schedule of release is as follows:

  • Field Operations - November 2020 to March 2021
  • Release of Final Results - 30 March 2022

V.2. Forms of Dissemination

Final results of the survey will be disseminated through a Press Release, Statistical/Publication Tables and Infographics one year after the reference year. Results will also be made available and posted in the PSA website through Statistical Report and LABSTAT Updates.


VI. Citation

Philippine Statistics Authority, (March 2022).  Technical Notes on 2019/2020 Integrated Survey on Labor and Employment.
Link: https://psa.gov.ph/isle/metadata


VII. Contact Information

Alegria A. Mota
Chief Statistical Specialist, LSREDSD
Tel No.: 8281-7998
Email Address: edsd.staff@gmail.com/edsd.staff@psa.gov.ph/lsrsd.staff@psa.gov.ph/lsrsd.staff@gmail.com

For data request, you may contact:
Knowledge Management and Communications Division
Tel No.: (632) 8462-6600 loc. 839
Email Address: info@psa.gov.ph

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