Literacy, Education and Mass Media

Technical Notes on the 1994 Functional Literacy, Education and Mass Media Survey (FLEMMS)

The 1994 FLEMMS was conducted in response to the government’s program of “Eradicating Illiteracy in the Year 2000” through Memorandum Circular No. 71, issued by President Fidel V. Ramos on September 7, 1993. This circular is basically geared towards intensifying, strengthening and consolidating efforts of all sectors of the society to deliver literacy and the necessary intervention to priority Filipinos especially those in the depressed, disadvantaged and underserved areas.

Out-of-School Youth

The proportion of youth population 7-24 years old who were out of school and those who were unemployed and have not graduated from college increased by 852 thousand, from 3.0 million in 1989 to 3.8 million in 1994. See Tables D1 and D2. Like the data on youth enrollment, the outcome of OSYs could have also been affected by some seasonalities brought about by the differences in the months the two surveys were conducted. Another possible factor was the onset of the harvest season.

Functional Literacy

In 1994, NCR had a 92.4 percent FLR, a slight 1.8 percentage point improve-ment from the 1989 level of 90.6 percent. Like in simple literacy, NCR was ranked first in functional literacy in both years but its increment was the lowest among regions. This is expected because being the country’s center for education, NCR had already very high literacy rates. In contrast to NCR’s 9 out of 10 persons aged 10 to 64 who are functionally literate, only about 6 in every ten persons in ARMM (61.2 percent) have basic reading, writing and computational skills.

Simple Literacy

About 93.9 percent (47.3 million out of 50.4 million) or roughly 9 out of 10 Filipinos aged 10 years old and over in 1994 can read and write and understand a simple message in any language or dialect (simple literate). Simple literacy improved by 4.1 percentage points from 89.8 percent in 1989, or an average increase of 0.8 percentage point per year. In other words, approximately 1 additional Filipino in every 100 became literate yearly from 1989 to 1994. Refer also to Tables A1 and A3.

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