The National Statistics Office (NSO) conducted for the second time the nationwide Annual Poverty Indicators Survey (APIS) in October 1999. The survey was designed to provide access and impact indicators that can be used for the development of an integrated poverty indicator and monitoring system.
Covering 41,000 sample households all over the country, APIS gathered information on the socio-economic profile of families and other information related to their living conditions. It gives a picture of how a province fares with other provinces in terms of percentage of families meeting a particular minimum basic need (MBN) or covered by the particular poverty correlate.
Ranking of Provinces for Selected Poverty Indicators is a compilation of fifteen selected minimum basic needs indicators taken from the 1999 Annual Poverty Indicators Survey (APIS). The provinces were arranged based on the percentage of families meeting a particular MBN indicator or poverty correlate from highest to lowest. The province with the highest percentage of families meeting the MBN or were covered by the poverty correlate was ranked 1 and the province with the lowest percentage of families meeting the MBN or were covered by the poverty correlate was ranked 77. However, ranking of provinces with working children was done in the opposite direction. Since the presence of working children in the family is a negative factor for the enabling indicator, the province with the highest percentage of families with working children was given a rank of 77, while the lowest percentage of families was given a rank of 1.
Survival needs are the biological requirements of the family and the individual to assure life sustenance. These include health, food and nutrition, clothing and safe water and sanitation. Security needs are the requirements to protect the family from physical harm. These include shelter, peace and order/public safety, and income/livelihood. Empowerment, or enabling needs, refer to the requirements that facilitate the attainment of survival and protection needs. These include basic education and functional literacy, participation in community development, and family and psycho-social care.
A. SURVIVAL INDICATORS
With pregnant and/or lactating family members 15-49 years old and were provided with iron supplements
With pregnant and/or lactating family members 15-49 years old and were provided with iodine supplements
With pregnant and/or lactating family members 15-49 years old and were given at least 2 shots/doses of tetanus toxoid injections
With married women 15-49 years old who had access to family planning services during the past 6 months
With married women 15-49 years old practicing family planning during the past 6 months
With access to safe drinking water
With sanitary toilets
· Camiguin ranked highest in terms of availment of both iron and iodine supplements by pregnant and/or lactating women 15-49 years old. However, Camiguin ranked only fourth with regard to availment of tetanus toxoid injection. Quezon and Ilocos Norte likewise ranked among the top five provinces in both iron and iodine supplements availment.
· Tetanus toxoid was more prevalent among pregnant and/or lactating women in Siquijor (100%), the highest among the provinces. While Siquijor topped in the availment of tetanus toxoid injection, it ranked low in the availment of iodine supplement (ranked 58).
· Lanao del Sur ranked lowest in the availment of iron supplement while Sultan Kudarat ranked lowest in the availment of iodine supplement. Sulu was the lowest in terms of availment of tetanus toxoid injection.
· Four provinces registered 100%-mark in terms of access to family planning. This means that all families in Ilocos Norte, Mt. Province, Aklan and Siquijor who had married women 15-49 years old had access to family planning services. The least was among families with married women in Lanao del Sur (40.0%), ranked 76 and Tawi-Tawi (36.7%), ranked 77.
· Among these families with access to family planning, there were those who practiced family planning. Sultan Kudarat reported the highest percentage of families with couples practicing family planning. Other provinces which registered more than 50%-mark in this indicator were Quirino (61.1%), Cagayan (56.5%), Nueva Vizcaya (52.8%), Davao Oriental (52.0%) and Davao (51.2%). Three provinces which are located in ARMM registered below 10%-mark. These were Lanao del Sur (9.6%), Sulu (9.5%) and Tawi-Tawi (3.2%).
· Sanitary type of toilet includes water sealed or closed pit toilet facilities. In this survey, Batanes reported 100% of families with access to sanitary toilet. Sultan Kudarat and Ilocos Norte ranked second and third with 98.7 percent and 98.1 percent, respectively. Sulu (20.8%) and Tawi-Tawi (11.6%), both from ARMM, reported the least percentage of families with sanitary toilets.
· Access to safe drinking water includes own used, community water system and shared faucet, community water system as main source of water supply. Batanes and Aurora reported 100% of families with access to safe drinking water. On the other hand, 5 provinces did not reach 50%-mark. These were Apayao (43.0%), Masbate (39.2%), Sulu (29.9%), Lanao del Sur (29.2%) and Tawi-Tawi (11.4%).
B. SECURITY INDICATORS
With owned/owner-like possession of housing units
With housing unit (roof and outer walls) made of strong materials
With family head who is gainfully employed
With at least a family member 18 years old and over who is gainfully employed
· Twelve of the 77 provinces exceeded 90%-mark on the percentage of families with owned or ownerlike possession of housing units. The three highest provinces were all from Luzon: Ilocos Sur (97.7%), Quirino (97.3%) and Ifugao (97.1%).
· On the other hand, less than half of the families in 5 provinces claimed ownership of housing units. These provinces were Capiz (49.2%), Negros Occidental (48.6%), Camarines Norte (48.3%), Camiguin (47.0%) and Western Samar (45.6%).
· Only the top 3 provinces registered higher than 90%-mark with housing unit (roof and outer walls) made of strong materials. These were Mountain Province (96.2%), Benguet (94.9%) and Pampanga (90.9%), all in Luzon. Laguna and Bulacan, which are also located in Luzon ranked fourth and fifth with 86.9 percent and 86.6 percent, respectively.
· Nine provinces registered less than one-third of families with houses made of strong materials. This group included the provinces of Sulu, Masbate, Capiz, Northern Samar, Davao Oriental, Palawan, Western Samar, Sorsogon and Negros Oriental.
· Of the 77 provinces with family head who is gainfully employed, Bukidnon ranked first with 98.5%. This was followed by Tawi-tawi (98.4%) and Lanao del Sur (97.8%). Other provinces whose percentage was higher than 95.0% were Sulu, Davao Oriental, Basilan, Mountain Province and Maguindanao.
· The lowest five provinces did not reach 80%-mark. These were Pampanga, Cavite, Rizal, Bataan and Ilocos Sur. Except for Ilocos Sur, these provinces are adjacent to Metro Manila.
· All provinces registered high marks in terms of presence of at least one family member 18 years old and over who was gainfully employed.
· However, only Batanes did not reach the 90%-mark registering the lowest at 84.9 percent.
C. ENABLING INDICATORS
With Children 6-12 years old who are in elementary school
With Children 13-16 years old who are in high school
With working children 5-17 years old
With at least one family member involved in people’s organization, non-government organization and/or cooperative
· Of the 7.8 million families reported to have children 6-12 years old, 7.1 million families (91.6%) had enrolled their children during the reference period. Proportion of families by provinces ranged from 73.7 percent to as high as 97.5 percent.
· Among the provinces with high percentage of families with children enrolled in elementary education were Sultan Kudarat (97.5%), Siquijor (96.9%), Mt. Province (96.7%), Marinduque (96.3%) and Ifugao (96.2%).
· The lowest percentages of families sending their children to elementary education came from Mindanao and these were Lanao del Sur (73.7%), Basilan (76.5%), Maguindanao (80.5%), Sarangani (83.0%), and Sulu (83.3%).
· About 71.5 percent of the families all over the Philippines had enrolled their children in high school.
· By province, Catanduanes (86.8%) had the highest proportion of families with enrolled children 13-16 years old in high school. This was followed by Batanes (84.8%), Zambales (84.1%), Abra (83.6%) and Ilocos Norte (83.1%).
· Around 1.5 million families had working children 5-17 years old. Provinces with less percentage of working children were ranked higher than those with higher proportion of working children.
· Rizal and Bataan posting 4.1 percent, got the lowest proportion of families with children 5-17 years old who were working. Next in rank were Cavite (4.7%), Zambales (4.9%) and Benguet (5.0%).
· Batanes ranked the lowest with 75.6 percent of families having working children aged 5-17 years old.
· Around 4.1 million or 27.8% of the total number of families all over Philippines had at least one family member involved in any people’s organization/ non-government organization/cooperative. Among provinces, Ilocos Norte (82.3%) had the highest percentage of families with membership in any organization/cooperative, followed by Bohol (80.6%) and Ilocos Sur (77.3%).
· Five provinces did not reach 10%-mark. These provinces were Cavite (7.9%), Rizal (7.8%), Lanao del Sur (6.4%), Pampanga (5.4%), and Sulu with only 2.7 percent, ranked lowest.
(Sgd.) CARMELITA N. ERICTA
Source: Income and Employment Statistics Division
National Statistics Office
Republic of the Philippines