Sixty percent of the population 15 years old and over are in the labor force.
In July 2017, the total population 15 years old and over was estimated at 70.2 million wherein the number of persons who were in the labor force was reported at 42.5 million. This placed the labor force participation rate (LFPR) at 60.6 percent, which means that six in ten of the population aged 15 years and over were either employed or unemployed.
Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) had the highest reported LFPR with 64.5 percent while the lowest LFPR reported was in Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) at 46.5 percent (Table 1 and Figure 1).
Employment rate is recorded at 94.4 percent
The total number of employed persons was estimated at 40.2 million. The employment rate reported or the proportion of employed persons to total labor force was 94.4 percent (Table 1 and Figure 2).
Five of the 17 regions, namely: Ilocos Region (91.8%), NCR (92.1%), Central Luzon (92.9%), CALABARZON (93.0%) and Northern Mindanao (94.3%) registered an employment rate lower than the national figure (Table 1 and Figure 2).
More males are employed than females
More than three in every five (62.5%) of the estimated 40.2 million employed persons in July 2017 were males. Employed females were reported at 37.5 percent of the total employed persons (Table 3 and Figure 3).
The largest number of employed persons were in the age group 25 to 34 years with 27.0 percent of the total employed. The 35 to 44 age group comprised the second largest group (23.0%), while the 45 to 54 age group made up the third largest group (18.7%).
More than half of the employed persons are working in services sector
The employed persons were grouped in three broad sectors, namely: agriculture, industry, and services sector. Workers in the services sector comprised the largest proportion of the employed population. These employed persons made up 55.0 percent of the total employed in July 2016 and 55.6 percent in July 2017. Workers in industry sector slightly increased from 17.8 percent in July 2016 to 19.2 percent in July 2017. On the other hand, workers in agriculture sector declined from 27.2 percent in July 2016 to 25.2 percent in July 2017 (Table 4 and Figure 4).
Classified according to sub-sector or major industry groups, workers in agriculture, forestry, and hunting sub-sector comprised the biggest percentage of the total employed in July 2017 (22.2%) and July 2016 (24.2%). Those in the wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles ranked next at 18.8 percent of the total employed in July 2017 and 19.8 percent in July 2016 (Table 4).
More than one-fourth of employed persons are in elementary occupations
Among the various occupation groups, workers in elementary occupations made up the largest percentage of the employed population in July 2016 and July 2017, with 26.9 percent and 26.8 percent, respectively (Table 5). Managers were the second largest group of workers with 17.3 percent in July 2016 and 15.3 percent in July 2017. Service and sales workers came in third with 15.2 percent in July 2016 and 14.5 percent in July 2017. Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers were accounted at 13.0 percent and 13.5 percent, respectively.
More than 60 percent of the employed persons are wage and salary workers
Employed persons were categorized as wage and salary workers, self-employed without any paid employee, employer in own family-operated farm or business and worked without pay in own family-operated farm or business or unpaid family workers.
Wage and salary workers are those who work for private households, private establishments, government and government-controlled corporations and those who work with pay in own family-operated farm or business.
In July 2017, around 63.6 percent of the total employed persons were wage and salary workers. Those who worked in private establishments made up 49.7 percent and those working in government and government-controlled corporations were accounted at 8.7 percent (Table 6). About 27.7 percent of the total employed persons were self-employed without any paid employee or those who were engaged in self-employment. The unpaid family workers made up 5.2 percent and the employer in own family-operated farm or business, 3.5 percent.
Classified according to broad industry group, three in every five unpaid family workers (61.4%) and employer in own family-operated farm or business (60.3%) were in the agriculture sector. Whereas nearly sixty percent (59.7%) of wage and salary workers and the self-employed without any paid employee (53.2%) were in the services sector (Table 7 and Figure 6).
Two-thirds of the total employed persons are full-time workers
Employed persons are classified as either full-time workers or part-time workers. Full-time workers are those who work for 40 hours or more during the reference week while part-time workers work for less than 40 hours.
In July 2017, full-time workers comprised 68.0 percent of the total employed persons, and the rest, part-time (31.5%) or with a job but not at work (0.6%). Among those who worked full-time, 21.7 percent worked more than 48 hours during the reference week (Table 8).
Underemployment rate is registered at 16.3 percent
The underemployed persons or those employed persons who express the desire to have additional hours of work in their present job, or to have additional job, or have a new job with longer working hours was estimated at 6.5 million persons corresponding to an underemployment rate of 16.3 percent (Table 1 and Table 2).
By sector, 46.8 percent of the underemployed persons worked in the services sector, while 33.1 percent were in the agriculture sector. Those in the industry sector accounted for 20.1 percent (Figure 7).
Underemployed persons who work for less than 40 hours in a week are called visibly underemployed. They accounted for more than half (51.6%) of the total underemployed in July 2017. By comparison, the underemployed persons who worked for 40 hours or more in a week made up 47.4 percent. (Table 9).
Unemployment rate reach 5.6 percent
In July 2017, the unemployed persons numbered 2.4 million resulting to an unemployment rate of 5.6 percent (Table 1 and Table 2). Among the regions, Ilocos Region (8.2%), National Capital Region (NCR) (7.9%), Central Luzon (7.1%), and CALABARZON (7.0%) were the regions with the highest unemployment rates (Table 1 and Figure 8).
There were more unemployed males (64.0%) than unemployed females [(36.0%) (Table 3)]. By educational attainment, 33.1 percent of the unemployed were junior high school graduates, and 21.3 percent were college graduates (Table 10).
Seven in ten persons who are not in the labor force are women
In July In July 2017, about 27.6 million or 39.4 percent of the total population 15 years old and over were not in the labor force (Table 3). These include housewives, students, persons with disability, and those who have retired from their employment. About seventy percent (69.1%) of those not in the labor force were women.
By age group, 44.1 percent of those not in the labor force belonged to the age group 15 to 24 years (Table 3 and Figure 9).
- The labor force population in July 2017 was estimated at 42.5 million. This translates to a labor force participation rate (LFPR) of 60.6 percent.
- Total employed persons were approximately 40.2 million, resulting to a national employment rate of 94.4 percent.
- More than half (55.6%) of the total employed were in the services sector, 26.1 percent were in the agriculture sector and 19.2 percent were in the industry sector.
- Workers in elementary occupations made up the largest proportion of employed persons as they comprised 26.8 percent of the total employed population.
- Total unemployed persons were accounted at 2.4 million which translates to an unemployment rate of 5.6 percent.
- Underemployment rate was estimated at 16.3 percent.
FOR THE NATIONAL STATISTICIAN:
SGD. ROMEO S. RECIDE
Deputy National Statistician
The Labor Force Survey (LFS) is a nationwide quarterly survey conducted by the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) during the months of January, April, July, and October. For this release, the data being presented are based on the final results of the July 2017 round of the LFS.
The reference period used in the survey is the past seven (7) days preceding the date of interview of the enumerator.
The concepts and definitions used in the survey can be found in PSA Integrated Survey of Households (ISH) Bulletins. Some are given below:
- Labor Force – refers to the population 15 years old and over who contribute to the production of goods and services in the country. It comprises the employed and unemployed.
- Employed – refers to persons in the labor force who are reported either as at work or with a job or business although not at work. Persons at work are those who did some work, even for an hour during the reference period.
- Unemployed – refers to persons in the labor force who are reported as:
1. without work; and
2. currently available for work; and
3. seeking work or not seeking work due to the following reasons:
- belief that no work is available, or
- awaiting results of previous job application, or
- because of temporary illness or disability, or
- bad weather, or
- waiting for rehire or job recall.
d. Underemployed – refers to employed persons who express the desire to have additional hours of work in their present job or an additional job, or a new job with longer working hours.
e. Labor Force Participation Rate (LFPR) – refers to the proportion of total labor force to the total household population 15 years old and over.
f. Employment Rate – refers to the proportion of employed persons to the total labor force.
g. Unemployment Rate – refers to the proportion of unemployed persons to the total labor force.
h. Underemployment Rate – refers to the proportion of underemployed persons to total employed persons.